Presentation on theme: "DSCB Whole School Training Pack. Learning Outcomes When the training is completed you will be Aware of legislation and national guidance relating to protecting."— Presentation transcript:
DSCB Whole School Training Pack
Learning Outcomes When the training is completed you will be Aware of legislation and national guidance relating to protecting and safeguarding children and young people Understand what children and young people want and need to feel safe Be aware of different forms of abuse Be aware of possible signs and indicators of abuse and neglect Know when and how to pass on a concern to the senior designated professional Understand the issues from both local and national Serious Case Reviews
Sensitivity We each carry our own experiences of being a child – during the training it is expected our agreement with each other will be to Respect each other and our individual experiences Keep any personal matter shared today private unless by doing so will be detrimental to a child Be sensitive talking about our professional experiences as the subject often raises personal as well as professional issues for ourselves and each other.
Children Act 1989 Children in Need (s17) Have a duty to investigate where there is reasonable cause to suspect a child is suffering or likely to suffer significant harm (s47)
Section 17 What does it cover? Impairment of health and development without the provision of services OR The child is disabled Duties of the Local Authority Safeguarding and promote the welfare of the child Promote up bringing with own family Provide services appropriate to child’s need Assess and provide services to child whose health and development is not as expected in partnership with parents.
Section 47 What does it cover? The legislation does not talk about child abuse – it conceptualises it in terms of the outcome of the abuse for the child Significant harm Duties of the Local Authority To make enquiries to enable them to decide whether they should take any action to safeguard and promote the welfare of the child. Have a duty to investigate where there is reasonable cause to suspect that a chid is suffering or at risk of suffering significant harm.
Education Act 2002 Section 175 (2) A governing body of a maintained school shall make arrangements for ensuring that the functions relating to the conduct of the school are exercised with a view to safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children who are pupils at the school.
Safeguarding in Education First circulated to schools in September 2004 Updated to include managing allegations of abuse against members of staff in June 2005 Developed to include requirements for safer recruitment in November 2005
Children Act 2004 Appointment of the children’s commissioner A duty to co-operate using the 5 outcomes as measures Local safeguarding children boards Information sharing protocols Director of children’s services Inception of children’s trusts
Victoria Climbie Died in February 2000 aged 8 years old Her ‘aunt’ and partner found guilty of murder and received life imprisonment in January 2001 Inquiry into Victoria’s life and death set up in April 2001 Inquiry chaired by Lord Laming Report published in April 2003.
Findings Victoria was known to: 3 housing departments 4 social services departments 2 GP’s 2 hospitals 2 police child protection teams 1 NSPCC family centre An unregistered child minder Faith based organisations ‘The extent of the failure to protect Victoria was lamentable’ Lord Laming
J Children Serious Case Review Lack of information sharing Inappropriate response to DV Multiple services involved Poor record keeping Lack of understanding re Thresholds Lack of engagement with father Neglect????????
Background Lauren Wright When Lauren died she had lost 4 stone and weighed only 2 stone Often appeared with bruises, which were explained away Lauren was killed by her step mother Hansard text 24 April 2002
Lauren Wright ‘Lots of times, often she was covered with lots of small bruises and with major bruises about once a month. These included black eyes, bruising to her face and scratches across her back’ Class teacher ‘Her physical deterioration had been apparent for at least 5 months before she died’ Head teacher
What Went Wrong Lauren’s step mother was a member of staff in the school. The senior designated professional had left the school and the role had not been replaced. A governor had offered to take on the role of senior designated professional Lauren’s teacher had not received any child protection training. Lauren’s step mother had told a paediatrician that Lauren was being bullied at school. The school did not make a referral to children’s social care.
North Somerset Serious Case Review 2011 Class teacher committed and was charged with 36 sexual offences Police uncovered 30,500 indecent photographs and 720 indecent movies The youngest victim was aged 6
What Went Wrong? The Teacher had worked in the school for 15 years, however within his first year colleagues had a variety of concerns. 30 incidents of inappropriate or unprofessional conduct were recorded in school but none were referred through the Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO)
Everyone Has a Responsibility To: Protect from maltreatment Prevent impairment Create opportunities to enable children to have optimum life chances in adulthood Working together 2006
Safeguarding in School Child protection Anti bullying policy Staff conduct Attendance Curriculum Behaviour Safer Recruitment Whistle blowing Allegations against staff – LADO Health and Safety Our building eSafety
Categories for Child Protection Plans Types of abuse Physical Emotional Sexual Neglect
Physical Abuse Physical abuse may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning/scalding, drowning, suffocating, or otherwise causing physical harm to a child. Physical harm may also be caused when a parent fabricates the symptoms of or deliberately induces illness in a child Working Together 2006
Possible Signs of Physical Abuse Runs away or fears going home Aggressive behaviour Reluctance to have parents contacted Depression Scalds Injuries not treated or treated inadequately Child flinches when approached Injuries to parts of the body where accidental injury is unlikely Bruising that reflects finger tops or hand marks Reluctance to get changed for PE Wanting arms and legs covered even in very hot weather Broken bones Cigarette burns Bite marks Ear injuries
Sexual Abuse Involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, including prostitution, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. It may involve physical contact, including penetrative or non penetrative acts. It may include non contact activities such as involving children in looking at, or in the production of pornographic material or watching sexual activities or encouraging children to behave sexually inappropriate ways.
Possible Signs of Sexual Abuse Stomach pains when walking or sitting Sudden unexpected changes in behaviour Nightmares Bedwetting Running away from home Fearful of someone Self-harming Recurrent genital discharge Any sexual transmitted disease Sexual drawings Sexually inappropriate language Not allowed to have friends Pain, itching or bleeding of the genital areas.
Emotional Abuse Is the persistent emotional maltreatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent adverse effects on the child’s emotional development It may involve conveying to the child that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate and valued in so far as they meet the needs of another person. It may feature age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being placed on the child. Working Together 2006
Possible Signs of Emotional Abuse Racial or other forms of harassment that regularly undermine a child’s self esteem Telling a child you wish they were dead or hadn’t been born Persistently being over protective Constantly shouting at, threatening or demeaning a child With holding love and affection Regularly humiliating a child Failure to thrive Inability to cope with praise Poor self esteem
Why Focus on Neglect? Neglect cases provide particular challenges for professionals working with children & young people Nationally neglect cases represent the highest proportion of children on child protection plans. Doncaster is mirroring this trend Understanding of both the impact & the identification of neglect is severely lacking 10% of abuse cases in Britain are due to neglect
Definition of Neglect Neglect is the persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and / or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s health or development. Neglect may occur during pregnancy as a result of maternal substance abuse. Once a child is born, neglect may involve a parent or carer failing to: Provide adequate food, clothing and shelter (including exclusion from home or abandonment) Protect a child from physical and emotional harm or danger Ensure adequate supervision (including the use of adequate care-givers) Ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment It may also include neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a child’s basic emotional needs
In groups: Discuss a case that you believe neglect to be the main issue: Identify on flip chart paper 1.Why you believe this is the case 2.Indicators
Deliberate Neglect or Lack of Understanding Using the eCAF brings services together to meet the needs of the child/children Allows for discussion about progress “when is enough, enough” Detailed referral if thresholds are met
Factors Contributing to Neglect Poor parenting of care givers History of neglect / abused care givers Care givers experience of care system / prison Substance misuse Mental illness / learning disability Inability to nurture Premature babies / low birth weight Lack of bonding Poor parenting skills
Factors Contributing to Neglect Disorganisation / mismanagement Domestic abuse Social isolation Frequent house moves Failure to engage in services – missed appointments
Family Dynamics High stress levels Family violence Unrealistic expectations of the child Parents needs first Scapegoating Lack of boundaries Financial problems
Impact on the Child Delayed development Lack of Stimulation Behavioural problems Aggression Physical injury / abuse Sexual abuse / inhibited sexuality Poor hygiene Hunger / feeding problems / inadequate diet Failure to thrive Health problems / inappropriate medical requests
Brain development in the first years of life Babies are born with 25 per cent of their brains developed, and there is then rapid periods of development so that by the age of 3 their brains are 80 per cent developed.
The Effects of Extreme Deprivation on The Brain
Development doesn’t stop at age 3! However research indicates that the most damage is done in the first 3 years of life.
Social and Economic benefits of intervening early Early intervention that promotes social and emotional development can significantly improve mental and physical health, educational attainment and employment opportunities. Early intervention can also help to prevent criminal (especially violent) behaviour, drug and alcohol misuse and teenage pregnancy
Parents actions are more important than who they are: The right kind of parenting is a bigger influence on a child’s future than, wealth, class, education or any other common social factor.
Social Capabilities A child will engage in give-and-take exchanges with an adult: will engage with other children: will demonstrate the ability to get along with others: will understand and respond to the emotions of others: will develop a sense of belonging to a larger community through social interactions and relationships, and will have an awareness of their relationship to others in a group; and will develop the ability to interact co-operatively with others.
Emotional Capabilities A child has secure attachment; is able to experience recognise and express a variety of emotions, and to recognise and empathise with those emotions in others; will manage their internal states and feelings, as well as stimulation from the outside world; will develop strategies to control emotions and behaviours; will manage their behaviours; and will recognise their ability to do things.
By building these capabilities we enable children to happily engage with others and with society, and to learn, to develop fully, to attain and to achieve.
If the predominant early experience is fear and stress the neurochemical responses to those experiences become the primary architects of the brain. Trauma elevates stress hormones, such as control. One result is significantly fewer synapses (or connections). Specialist viewing CAT scans show an area that looks like a black hole.
House of horror in Clifton, York A mother and father who imprisoned their pre-school youngsters for months in a house of horror have been jailed for three years. A neighbour’s call for help finally enabled police to break through the wall of excuses made by the parents to prevent the authorities discovering the stinking, squalid conditions in which they had to live, York Crown Court heard. Jailing them, Judge Stephen Ashurst said the couple’s three young children were “not so much living, rather surviving in that dark, insanitary and squalid house”. He said: “All three of your children were dirty and unkempt. They had, variously, cradle cap, severe nappy rash and other areas of inflammation. The two older children including (the four-and-a-half year old) were still in nappies. “They were prisoners in their own home unable even to play in the garden.”......
Neglect Good practice when working with adolescents who have suffered neglect.
Most of the research around what works with adolescents who have suffered neglect, identifies that cognitive behavioural interventions offered the most benefits. Also the holistic approach used within multi – systemic therapy (MST). This approach emphasises the importance of the CAF and a multi disciplinary approach.
Resilience: Young people who are doing well despite adversity Using risk and protective factors Using the ‘strengths’ already evident
Neglect does challenge professional & personal values leading to an avoidance of making value judgements. TAC meetings assist in Multi-agency decisions
Visit our website For any policies and procedures including the neglect assessment tool please use the Policies book in the top right hand corner.
Confidentiality when passing concerns to Designated Teachers The majority of cases we will deal with arise from out knowledge of the children and our observations. This enables us to build a picture over time that might constitute a child protection concern. Another aspect of our work is dealing with disclosures when children tell us about something What does confidentiality mean to you as an individual and what does it mean in your role in school?
Allowing Children to Talk Helpful ideas Take what you are being told seriously Listen carefully – do not interrupt Acknowledge what you have been told Remain calm Reassure – tell them they have done the right thing Tell them you will have to pass the information on and who you will be telling and why Pass to the Designated Person on the referral form What to avoid Do not investigate Do not look shocked or distasteful Do not probe Do not speculate Do not pass an opinion about the alleged perpetrator Do not make comments Do not promise to keep a secret Do not display disbelief Never delay getting help
What Stops Children From Telling? Being blamed Direct threats Fear of what will happen No one listening Lack of communication or vocabulary Not recognising an abusive situation Lack of trust Abuse is not considered unusual Feeling responsible
Children Talk About Their Concerns When… School feels a safe place to be Children’s views and contributions are respected Adults and children are respectful of each other There is a culture of openness, honesty and trust Staff allow children to be heard There is space for privacy Self esteem is high Safeguarding in Education and Safer Recruitment 2007
I Think I Should Act Now What will stop me? What if I’m wrong? I’m not very confident I don’t know the child very well I’ve reported before and had a bad experience I don’t know who to talk to It’s not my job Someone else will pass it on I will do it tomorrow I have not got the time It doesn’t happen to families here Why I will pass it on? At this school we take safeguarding seriously I know our school procedure I know who to pass it to I know what is expected of me It is my responsibility This is serious and important Children spend more time in school than any other place After parents, school staff are often the next adults a child will respond to The indicators of abuse are present Abuse investigations often highlight a failure to act
What Does the Senior Designated Professional Need to Know Who is the child – full name Where were you in school when they disclosed to you Was anyone else with you What did they say – their words and descriptions What did you do or say Did they show you an injury Were is it colour, size what does it look like Was the disclosure of a sexual nature What else do you know about the child