2 Learning Outcomes When the training is completed you will be Aware of legislation and national guidance relating to protecting and safeguarding children and young peopleUnderstand what children and young people want and need to feel safeBe aware of different forms of abuseBe aware of possible signs and indicators of abuse and neglectKnow when and how to pass on a concern to the senior designated professionalUnderstand the issues from both local and national Serious Case Reviews
3 SensitivityWe each carry our own experiences of being a child – during the training it is expected our agreement with each other will be toRespect each other and our individual experiencesKeep any personal matter shared today private unless by doing so will be detrimental to a childBe sensitive talking about our professional experiences as the subject often raises personal as well as professional issues for ourselves and each other.
4 Children Act 1989 Children in Need (s17) Have a duty to investigate where there is reasonable cause to suspect a child is suffering or likely to suffer significant harm (s47)
5 Section 17 What does it cover? Impairment of health and development without the provision of servicesORThe child is disabledDuties of the Local AuthoritySafeguarding and promote the welfare of the childPromote up bringing with own familyProvide services appropriate to child’s needAssess and provide services to child whose health and development is not as expected in partnership with parents.
6 Section 47 What does it cover? The legislation does not talk about child abuse – it conceptualises it in terms of the outcome of the abuse for the childSignificant harmDuties of the Local AuthorityTo make enquiries to enable them to decide whether they should take any action to safeguard and promote the welfare of the child.Have a duty to investigate where there is reasonable cause to suspect that a chid is suffering or at risk of suffering significant harm.
7 Education Act 2002Section 175 (2) A governing body of a maintained school shall make arrangements for ensuring that the functions relating to the conduct of the school are exercised with a view to safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children who are pupils at the school.
8 Safeguarding in Education First circulated to schools in September 2004Updated to include managing allegations of abuse against members of staff in June 2005Developed to include requirements for safer recruitment in November 2005
9 Children Act 2004 Appointment of the children’s commissioner A duty to co-operate using the 5 outcomes as measuresLocal safeguarding children boardsInformation sharing protocolsDirector of children’s servicesInception of children’s trusts
10 Victoria Climbie Died in February 2000 aged 8 years old Her ‘aunt’ and partner found guilty of murder and received life imprisonment in January 2001Inquiry into Victoria’s life and death set up in April 2001Inquiry chaired by Lord LamingReport published in April 2003.
11 Findings Victoria was known to: 3 housing departments 4 social services departments2 GP’s2 hospitals2 police child protection teams1 NSPCC family centreAn unregistered child minderFaith based organisations‘The extent of the failure to protect Victoria was lamentable’Lord Laming
12 J Children Serious Case Review Lack of information sharing Inappropriate response to DVMultiple services involvedPoor record keepingLack of understanding re ThresholdsLack of engagement with fatherNeglect????????
13 Background Lauren Wright 1994-2000 When Lauren died she had lost 4 stone and weighed only 2 stoneOften appeared with bruises, which were explained awayLauren was killed by her step motherHansard text 24 April 2002
14 Lauren Wright‘Lots of times, often she was covered with lots of small bruises and with major bruises about once a month. These included black eyes, bruising to her face and scratches across her back’ Class teacher ‘Her physical deterioration had been apparent for at least 5 months before she died’ Head teacher
15 What Went WrongLauren’s step mother was a member of staff in the school.The senior designated professional had left the school and the role had not been replaced.A governor had offered to take on the role of senior designated professionalLauren’s teacher had not received any child protection training.Lauren’s step mother had told a paediatrician that Lauren was being bullied at school.The school did not make a referral to children’s social care.
16 North Somerset Serious Case Review 2011 Class teacher committed and was charged with 36 sexual offencesPolice uncovered 30,500 indecent photographs and 720 indecent moviesThe youngest victim was aged 6
17 What Went Wrong?The Teacher had worked in the school for 15 years, however within his first year colleagues had a variety of concerns.30 incidents of inappropriate or unprofessional conduct were recorded in school but none were referred through the Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO)
18 Everyone Has a Responsibility To: Protect from maltreatmentPrevent impairmentCreate opportunities to enable children to have optimum life chances in adulthoodWorking together 2006
19 Safeguarding in School Child protectionAnti bullying policyStaff conductAttendanceCurriculumBehaviourSafer RecruitmentWhistle blowingAllegations against staff – LADOHealth and SafetyOur buildingeSafety
20 Categories for Child Protection Plans PhysicalNeglectTypes of abuseEmotionalSexual
21 Physical AbusePhysical abuse may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning/scalding, drowning, suffocating, or otherwise causing physical harm to a child. Physical harm may also be caused when a parent fabricates the symptoms of or deliberately induces illness in a childWorking Together 2006
22 Possible Signs of Physical Abuse Runs away or fears going homeAggressive behaviourReluctance to have parents contactedDepressionScaldsInjuries not treated or treated inadequatelyChild flinches when approachedInjuries to parts of the body where accidental injury is unlikelyBruising that reflects finger tops or hand marksReluctance to get changed for PEWanting arms and legs covered even in very hot weatherBroken bonesCigarette burnsBite marksEar injuries
23 Sexual AbuseInvolves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, including prostitution, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. It may involve physical contact, including penetrative or non penetrative acts. It may include non contact activities such as involving children in looking at, or in the production of pornographic material or watching sexual activities or encouraging children to behave sexually inappropriate ways.
24 Possible Signs of Sexual Abuse Stomach pains when walking or sittingSudden unexpected changes in behaviourNightmaresBedwettingRunning away from homeFearful of someoneSelf-harmingRecurrent genital dischargeAny sexual transmitted diseaseSexual drawingsSexually inappropriate languageNot allowed to have friendsPain, itching or bleeding of the genital areas.
25 Emotional AbuseIs the persistent emotional maltreatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent adverse effects on the child’s emotional development It may involve conveying to the child that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate and valued in so far as they meet the needs of another person. It may feature age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being placed on the child. Working Together 2006
26 Possible Signs of Emotional Abuse Racial or other forms of harassment that regularly undermine a child’s self esteemTelling a child you wish they were dead or hadn’t been bornPersistently being over protectiveConstantly shouting at, threatening or demeaning a childWith holding love and affectionRegularly humiliating a childFailure to thriveInability to cope with praisePoor self esteem
27 Why Focus on Neglect?Neglect cases provide particular challenges for professionals working with children & young peopleNationally neglect cases represent the highest proportion of children on child protection plans. Doncaster is mirroring this trendUnderstanding of both the impact & the identification of neglect is severely lacking10% of abuse cases in Britain are due to neglect
28 Definition of NeglectNeglect is the persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and / or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s health or development. Neglect may occur during pregnancy as a result of maternal substance abuse. Once a child is born, neglect may involve a parent or carer failing to:Provide adequate food, clothing and shelter (including exclusion from home or abandonment)Protect a child from physical and emotional harm or dangerEnsure adequate supervision (including the use of adequate care-givers)Ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatmentIt may also include neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a child’s basic emotional needs
29 In groups:Discuss a case that you believe neglect to be the main issue:Identify on flip chart paperWhy you believe this is the caseIndicators
30 Deliberate Neglect or Lack of Understanding Using the eCAF brings services together to meet the needs of the child/childrenAllows for discussion about progress “when is enough, enough”Detailed referral if thresholds are met
31 Factors Contributing to Neglect Poor parenting of care giversHistory of neglect / abused care giversCare givers experience of care system / prisonSubstance misuseMental illness / learning disabilityInability to nurturePremature babies / low birth weightLack of bondingPoor parenting skills
32 Factors Contributing to Neglect Disorganisation / mismanagementDomestic abuseSocial isolationFrequent house movesFailure to engage in services – missed appointments
33 Family Dynamics High stress levels Family violence Unrealistic expectations of the childParents needs firstScapegoatingLack of boundariesFinancial problems
34 Impact on the Child Delayed development Lack of Stimulation Behavioural problemsAggressionPhysical injury / abuseSexual abuse / inhibited sexualityPoor hygieneHunger / feeding problems / inadequate dietFailure to thriveHealth problems / inappropriate medical requests
35 Brain development in the first years of life Babies are born with 25 per cent of their brains developed, and there is then rapid periods of development so that by the age of 3 their brains are 80 per cent developed.
36 The Effects of Extreme Deprivation on The Brain
37 Development doesn’t stop at age 3! However research indicates that the most damage is done in the first 3 years of life.
38 Social and Economic benefits of intervening early Early intervention that promotes social and emotional development can significantly improve mental and physical health, educational attainment and employment opportunities.Early intervention can also help to prevent criminal (especially violent) behaviour, drug and alcohol misuse and teenage pregnancy
39 Parents actions are more important than who they are: The right kind of parenting is a bigger influence on a child’s future than, wealth, class, education or any other common social factor.
40 Social CapabilitiesA child will engage in give-and-take exchanges with an adult: will engage with other children: will demonstrate the ability to get along with others: will understand and respond to the emotions of others: will develop a sense of belonging to a larger community through social interactions and relationships, and will have an awareness of their relationship to others in a group; and will develop the ability to interact co-operatively with others.
41 Emotional Capabilities A child has secure attachment; is able to experience recognise and express a variety of emotions, and to recognise and empathise with those emotions in others; will manage their internal states and feelings, as well as stimulation from the outside world; will develop strategies to control emotions and behaviours; will manage their behaviours; and will recognise their ability to do things.
42 By building these capabilities we enable children to happily engage with others and with society, and to learn, to develop fully, to attain and to achieve.
43 If the predominant early experience is fear and stress the neurochemical responses to those experiences become the primary architects of the brain.Trauma elevates stress hormones, such as control. One result is significantly fewer synapses (or connections) . Specialist viewing CAT scans show an area that looks like a black hole.
44 House of horror in Clifton, York A mother and father who imprisoned their pre-school youngsters for months in a house of horror have been jailed for three years.A neighbour’s call for help finally enabled police to break through the wall of excuses made by the parents to prevent the authorities discovering the stinking, squalid conditions in which they had to live, York Crown Court heard.Jailing them, Judge Stephen Ashurst said the couple’s three young children were “not so much living, rather surviving in that dark, insanitary and squalid house”.He said: “All three of your children were dirty and unkempt. They had, variously, cradle cap, severe nappy rash and other areas of inflammation. The two older children including (the four-and-a-half year old) were still in nappies.“They were prisoners in their own home unable even to play in the garden.”......
47 NeglectGood practice when working with adolescents who have suffered neglect.
48 Most of the research around what works with adolescents who have suffered neglect, identifies that cognitive behavioural interventions offered the most benefits. Also the holistic approach used within multi – systemic therapy (MST). This approach emphasises the importance of the CAF and a multi disciplinary approach.
49 Resilience:Young people who are doing well despite adversityUsing risk and protective factorsUsing the ‘strengths’ already evident
50 Neglect does challenge professional & personal values leading to an avoidance of making value judgements. TAC meetings assist in Multi-agency decisions
51 Visit our website www.doncastersafeguardingchildren.co.uk For any policies and procedures including the neglect assessment tool please use the Policies book in the top right hand corner.
52 Confidentiality when passing concerns to Designated Teachers The majority of cases we will deal with arise from out knowledge of the children and our observations. This enables us to build a picture over time that might constitute a child protection concern.Another aspect of our work is dealing with disclosures when children tell us about somethingWhat does confidentiality mean to you as an individual and what does it mean in your role in school?
53 Allowing Children to Talk Helpful ideasTake what you are being told seriouslyListen carefully – do not interruptAcknowledge what you have been toldRemain calmReassure – tell them they have done the right thingTell them you will have to pass the information on and who you will be telling and whyPass to the Designated Person on the referral formWhat to avoidDo not investigateDo not look shocked or distastefulDo not probeDo not speculateDo not pass an opinion about the alleged perpetratorDo not make commentsDo not promise to keep a secretDo not display disbeliefNever delay getting help
54 What Stops Children From Telling? Being blamedDirect threatsFear of what will happenNo one listeningLack of communication or vocabularyNot recognising an abusive situationLack of trustAbuse is not considered unusualFeeling responsible
55 Children Talk About Their Concerns When… School feels a safe place to beChildren’s views and contributions are respectedAdults and children are respectful of each otherThere is a culture of openness, honesty and trustStaff allow children to be heardThere is space for privacySelf esteem is highSafeguarding in Education and Safer Recruitment 2007
56 I Think I Should Act Now What will stop me? What if I’m wrong? I’m not very confidentI don’t know the child very wellI’ve reported before and had a bad experienceI don’t know who to talk toIt’s not my jobSomeone else will pass it onI will do it tomorrowI have not got the timeIt doesn’t happen to families hereWhy I will pass it on?At this school we take safeguarding seriouslyI know our school procedureI know who to pass it toI know what is expected of meIt is my responsibilityThis is serious and importantChildren spend more time in school than any other placeAfter parents, school staff are often the next adults a child will respond toThe indicators of abuse are presentAbuse investigations often highlight a failure to act
57 What Does the Senior Designated Professional Need to Know Who is the child – full nameWhere were you in school when they disclosed to youWas anyone else with youWhat did they say – their words and descriptionsWhat did you do or sayDid they show you an injuryWere is it colour, size what does it look likeWas the disclosure of a sexual natureWhat else do you know about the child