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Basic Concepts: Tissue. General Terms Anatomy: The study of the structure of an organism Physiology: The study of the function of the living organism.

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Presentation on theme: "Basic Concepts: Tissue. General Terms Anatomy: The study of the structure of an organism Physiology: The study of the function of the living organism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic Concepts: Tissue

2 General Terms Anatomy: The study of the structure of an organism Physiology: The study of the function of the living organism and its parts as well as the chemical processes involved Related fields: Cytology, Histology, Osteology, Myology, arthrology, neurology

3 Building Blocks of Anatomy: Tissue Cells & Tissues of Human Body: –100 trillion individual cells (tissue= group of cells) 1) Function: –ingestion of nutrients –breakdown & utilization of nutrients; metabolic, discharge of wastes –Reproduce themselves –Four Basic Types of Tissue: epithelium connective tissue nerve muscle

4 Tissue Epithelium –Sheets of cells covering external surfaces of the body & line cavities –Cells; little intracellular substance, adhere, avascular –Function: Protection & Absorption –Covering, Glandular, myoepithelium, neuroepithelium

5 Tissue Epithelium (cont.) –Classified by cell layers: simple epithelium (1 layer) stratified (2 or more layers) –Classified by shape: squamous (flat)- blood vessels, heart, alveoli cubodial (cube-shaped)- thyroid gland columnar (cylindrical)- stomach, intestine

6 Tissue Connective –Types: Connective tissue proper, cartilage & bone 1) Connective tissue proper: few living cells nonliving intracellular material 3 types of loose tissue: collagen (not stretchable), elastic (Stretch), reticular (like collagen) 2 types of dense tissue: (irregular & regular- tendons, ligaments)

7 A. Collagen Fibers A. Reticular Fibers A. Elastic Fibers B. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue C. Dense Regular Connective Tissue A. Loose (3) Connective Tissue

8 Tissue Connective Tissue Proper (cont.) –Tendon: regular connective tissue; attach muscle to bone –Ligaments: regular connective tissue; connects bones and cartilage's 2) Cartilage: –rigid consistency, flexibility, slight elasticity –form resistant to pressure (unlike CTP) –composed of matrix (cytoplasm) –3 types: Hyaline, Elastic, Fibrous

9 Cartilage Hyaline Elastic Fibrous

10 3 Types of Cartilage Hyaline: –fine network of collagen fibers –most common type –most rigid form –found in nose, larynx, rib cage (between bony ribs & sternum) Elastic: –dense network of elastic & some collagen fibers –less rigid –form to external ear Fibrous: –cells occur in rows & collagen fibers in bundles –Found in the disks between the vertebrae

11 Tissue Cartilage (cont.): –Provides protection –Shock absorber –Covers bony surfaces within joints –surrounded by Perichondrium

12 Tissue 3) Bone: –Composed of cells in matrix containing collagen –Matrix embedded in minerals –Minerals: calcium phosphate & calcium carbonate –surrounded by periostium –Spongy interconnecting cavities –Compact dense & devoid of cavities

13 Tissue Joints: –Union of bones to other bones –3 types fibrous-bind immobile bodies together cartilaginous-binds with cartilage synovial-lubricating synovial fluid is contained in the articular capsule

14 Suture (fibrous) Spheroid (Synovial) Symphysis (Cartilaginous)

15 ? Hinge (Synovial) ? ?

16 Tissue Nerve –Two types of cells Nerve –conduction & transmission –10 billion –Cell body, axon, dendrites Neuroglia –supports neuron

17 Nerve Cell Dendrites Nucleus Cell Body Axon Hillock Axon Neuron

18 Lower Motor Neuron Upper Motor Neuron Purkinje Stellate Granule

19 Unipolar Bipolar Multipolar Axon Dendrites Axon Hillock Classification

20 Tissue Nerve (cont.) –Classified as Motor or sensory Motor-CNS to muscles Sensory-receive stimuli from periphery send to CNS

21 Tissue Muscle –3 types of muscle cells Cardiac (heart, long interrupted function) Smooth (blood vessels, intestines, slow steady contractions) Striated (skeletal, conscious control)

22 Striated - Cylindrical, tapered at end -Terminates at tendon -Encased in epimysium Fascicle Fiber Myofibril Myofilaments

23 Reading/Assignments Seikel: Pgs (Installation Instructions) Seikel: Ch.2 (Basic Elements of Anatomy) Dickson: Pgs ;

24 Have a Great Weekend!!


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