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…pass the tissues please…

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Presentation on theme: "…pass the tissues please…"— Presentation transcript:

1 …pass the tissues please…
Histology …pass the tissues please…

2 I. Intro to Histology Tissue definition: A group of similar cells working towards one unifying goal Tissues components Similar cells Extracellular Matrix - water, NaCl, ions, calcium, fibers, nutrients, etc..

3 I. Intro to Histology The 4 types of tissues
Epithelial         * covers body surfaces         * lines hollow organs         * lines body cavities and ducts         * forms glands and secretions Connective         * protection and support         * binding together (like glue)         * energy storage Muscle * movement and force (including peristalsis) Nervous * coordinates body activities

4 I. Critical Thinking Question?
What tissue type does blood belong to? A. Epithelial B. Connective C. Muscle D. Nerve E. Blood isn’t a tissue

5 II. Epithelial Anatomy Location Covers external surfaces
Lines internal surfaces such as cheeks, blood vessels, organs etc… Glands

6 II. Epithelial Anatomy Basic Anatomy Cells bound tightly together
Classified by shape of cells and number of layers Avascular Contain Stem cells Has an exposed surface (Apical membrane) Has a surface bound to connective tisuuse (basal membrane) Apical Surface Basal (basement) Connective tissue

7 III. Epithelia Physiology
Function Provides protection internally and externally Controls permeability Provides for touch/stimuli Produces secretions: exocrine – released onto surfaces digestive enzymes, sweat endocrine – releases into tissue fluid and blood Hormones (chemical messengers) from pancreas, thyroid, pituitary, etc

8 II. Epithelial Anatomy Basic Anatomy
Apical Surface may contain specialized structures Cilia for movement Microvilli for increased absorption (Brush Borders)

9 II. Epithelial Anatomy The Brush Border

10 II. Epithelial Anatomy Basic Anatomy Basal Membrane: “Basement”
Provides strength to epithelium Creates barriers to prevent molecules from entering connective tissue

11 II. Epithelial Anatomy Classification Systems By Layers Shape
Simple: single Stratified: multiple Pseudostratified: appears multiple, but really simple Shape Squamous: Flat Cubodial: cube-like Columnar: column-like Transitional: changes Example. Simple cubodial = 1 cell thick of cube shaped cells

12 IV. Epithelial Tissues: Simple Squamous
Anatomy Lining of body cavities, organs, blood vessels, alveoli lung surface Serous Membranes Physiology Diffusion Secretions

13 IV. Epithelial Tissues: Simple Squamous

14 IV. Epithelial Tissues: Simple Squamous

15 IV Epithelial Tissues: Simple Cuboidal
Anatomy Digestive tract, Kidney tubules, glands Physiology Absorption and Secretions

16 IV Epithelial Tissues: Simple Cuboidal

17 IV Epithelial Tissues: Simple Columnar
Anatomy Lining of digestive tract Modified by presence of cilia Contains “Goblet cells” Physiology Help move surface material Absorption

18 IV Epithelial Tissues: Simple Columnar

19 IV Epithelial Tissues: Simple Cuboidal
Simple Columnar

20 IV Epithelial Tissues: Simple Columnar

21 IV Epithelial Tissues: Stratified Squamous
Anatomy Outer most layer- squamous cells Inner- cuboidal or columnar Lining of mouth, esophagus, skin Can be keratinized Physiology Protection Secretion Moistens membranes

22 IV Epithelial Tissues: Stratified Squamous
Stratified Squamous – non keratinized

23 IV Epithelial Tissues: Stratified Squamous
Keratinized Stratified Squamous Keratin: Waxy protective coverings Waterproofs

24 IV Epithelial Tissues: Pseudostratified Columnar
Anatomy One layer All attach to the basal membrane Appears stratified Upper respiratory tract Physiology Move material

25 IV Epithelial Tissues: Pseudostratified Columnar

26 V. Connective Tissue Abundant extracellular material
Matrix (dominant part) or ground substance Fiber, cells in liquid, gel, or solid matrix Never exposed to “outside environment” If exposed, causes a response for “damage control” (ie. Bleeding) Functions Bind and/or support other tissue Energy storage Defense of the body

27 V. Connective Tissue Classification is based on the composition of matrix… 1. Connective Tissue Proper – loose and dense. subcutaneous, fat, tendons and ligaments 2. Fluid connective tissue 3. Supporting connective tissue

28 V. Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Tissue Proper Fluid Supporting
Blood Lymph Loose Dense Cartilage Bone Dense Regular Dense Irregular

29 VI. Connective Tissue Proper
- Either loose or dense - Examples: subcutaneous, fat, tendons and ligaments Tissue Proper is composed of … Fibroblasts – homeostasis of tissue Macrophages – engulf waste Fat cells – permanent residents Mast cells – near blood vessels, release chemicals to elicit injury response

30 VI. Connective Tissue Proper
3 Fibers Collagen - long and straight, most common fibers, strong but flexible Elastic – branched and wavy, contains elastin, are elastic Reticular – less common, thin, branching, interwoven framework of fibers

31 VI. Connective Tissue Proper
Loose or areolar Fewer fibers but all kinds Cushioning and support Deep to skin, between muscles, around vessels Dense Fibrous abundant, organized collagen fibers Tendons and ligaments Dense Regular or Dense irregular

32 VI. Connective Tissue Proper
Dense Regular collagen runs parallel, packed tightly, aligned with forces Tendons and ligaments Provides attachements Dense Irregular with collagen to provide support and strength Gives skin its strength

33 VII. Adipose Adipose Connective Tissue Loose connective
Store large droplets of fat Large “marshmellow” looking cells Nuclei squished to one side

34 VIII. Fluid Connective Tissue
Blood Plasma: Liquid matrix RBC’s WBC’s Lymphatic System Lymph: fluid portion Part of your immune system

35 IX. Supporting Connective
Cartilage Connective Tissue Rubbery consistency (matrix) Avascular

36 IX. Supporting Connective
Types of Cartilage Hyaline – most common Joints, rib cage, respiratory tract Elastic Mostly elastic fibers, Very flexible Outer ear, nose, epiglottis Fibrocartilage Mostly collagen fibers, durable, strong, tough Backbone (resist compression, absorb shock…)


38 IX. Supporting Connective
Bone Osteocytes: bone cells Hardest connective tissue Spongy bone Ends of long bones Compact Shafts of long bones Tightly organized

39 Bone Connective Tissue

40 X: Muscle Functions: Three types 1. Skeletal 2. Smooth 3. Cardiac
Cells have ability to contract Locomotion Support Other body movement

41 X: Muscle: Skeletal Voluntary movement
Long and cylindrical (up to 25 cm) Transverse striation multi-nucleated

42 X: Muscle: Smooth Involuntary movement Long, spindle shape
Single nucleus Internal organs

43 X: Muscle: Cardiac Striations Involuntary One nucleus
Intercalated disks Heart muscle

44 XI: Nervous Cells very high ability to Two types of cells
Respond to stimuli Transmit impulses Two types of cells Neurons – conduct nerve impulses Neuroglia – provide physical support, maintain chemical composition of tissue fluids, nutrients…

45 XI: Nervous Cell Body(3) Dendrites (5) Axon(1) Very LONG cells
Can’t be replaced Very LONG cells Create the human “electrical system”

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