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Histology …pass the tissues please…. I. Intro to Histology Tissue definition: A group of similar cells working towards one unifying goal Tissues components.

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Presentation on theme: "Histology …pass the tissues please…. I. Intro to Histology Tissue definition: A group of similar cells working towards one unifying goal Tissues components."— Presentation transcript:

1 Histology …pass the tissues please…

2 I. Intro to Histology Tissue definition: A group of similar cells working towards one unifying goal Tissues components 1. Similar cells 2. Extracellular Matrix - water, NaCl, ions, calcium, fibers, nutrients, etc..

3 The 4 types of tissues 1. Epithelial * covers body surfaces * lines hollow organs * lines body cavities and ducts * forms glands and secretions 2. Connective * protection and support * binding together (like glue) * energy storage 3. Muscle * movement and force (including peristalsis) 4. Nervous * coordinates body activities I. Intro to Histology

4 I. Critical Thinking Question? What tissue type does blood belong to? A. Epithelial B. Connective C. Muscle D. Nerve E. Blood isn’t a tissue

5 Location Covers external surfaces Lines internal surfaces such as cheeks, blood vessels, organs etc… Glands II. Epithelial Anatomy

6 Apical Surface Basal (basement) Basic Anatomy Cells bound tightly together Classified by shape of cells and number of layers Avascular Contain Stem cells Has an exposed surface (Apical membrane) Has a surface bound to connective tisuuse (basal membrane) Connective tissue II. Epithelial Anatomy

7 III. Epithelia Physiology Function Provides protection internally and externally Controls permeability Provides for touch/stimuli Produces secretions: exocrine – released onto surfaces  digestive enzymes, sweat endocrine – releases into tissue fluid and blood  Hormones (chemical messengers) from pancreas, thyroid, pituitary, etc

8 II. Epithelial Anatomy Basic Anatomy Apical Surface may contain specialized structures Cilia for movement Microvilli for increased absorption (Brush Borders)

9 II. Epithelial Anatomy The Brush Border

10 II. Epithelial Anatomy Basic Anatomy Basal Membrane: “Basement” Provides strength to epithelium Creates barriers to prevent molecules from entering connective tissue

11 II. Epithelial Anatomy Shape Squamous: Flat Cubodial: cube-like Columnar: column-like Transitional: changes By Layers Simple: single Stratified: multiple Pseudostratified: appears multiple, but really simple Classification Systems Example. Simple cubodial = 1 cell thick of cube shaped cells

12 Simple Squamous Anatomy Lining of body cavities, organs, blood vessels, alveoli lung surface Serous Membranes Physiology Diffusion Secretions IV. Epithelial Tissues: Simple Squamous

13 Simple Squamous IV. Epithelial Tissues: Simple Squamous

14 Simple Squamous IV. Epithelial Tissues: Simple Squamous

15 Simple Cuboidal Anatomy Digestive tract, Kidney tubules, glands Physiology Absorption and Secretions IV Epithelial Tissues: Simple Cuboidal

16 Simple Cuboidal

17 Simple Columnar Anatomy Lining of digestive tract Modified by presence of cilia Contains “Goblet cells” Physiology Help move surface material Absorption IV Epithelial Tissues: Simple Columnar

18 Simple Columnar

19 IV Epithelial Tissues: Simple Cuboidal

20 IV Epithelial Tissues: Simple Columnar Simple Columnar

21 Stratified Squamous Anatomy Outer most layer- squamous cells Inner- cuboidal or columnar Lining of mouth, esophagus, skin Can be keratinized Physiology Protection Secretion Moistens membranes IV Epithelial Tissues: Stratified Squamous

22 Stratified Squamous – non keratinized IV Epithelial Tissues: Stratified Squamous

23 Keratinized Stratified Squamous Keratin: Waxy protective coverings Waterproofs

24 IV Epithelial Tissues: Pseudostratified Columnar Pseudostratified Columnar Anatomy One layer All attach to the basal membrane Appears stratified Upper respiratory tract Physiology Move material

25 Pseudostratified Columnar IV Epithelial Tissues: Pseudostratified Columnar

26 V. Connective Tissue Abundant extracellular material Matrix (dominant part) or ground substance Fiber, cells in liquid, gel, or solid matrix Never exposed to “outside environment” If exposed, causes a response for “damage control” (ie. Bleeding) Functions Bind and/or support other tissue Energy storage Defense of the body

27 Classification is based on the composition of matrix… 1. Connective Tissue Proper – loose and dense. subcutaneous, fat, tendons and ligaments 2. Fluid connective tissue 3. Supporting connective tissue V. Connective Tissue

28 Connective Tissue Tissue Proper FluidSupporting BloodLymph CartilageBone Dense Regular DenseLoose Dense Irregular V. Connective Tissue

29 VI. Connective Tissue Proper Tissue Proper: - Either loose or dense - Examples: subcutaneous, fat, tendons and ligaments Tissue Proper is composed of … Fibroblasts – homeostasis of tissue Macrophages – engulf waste Fat cells – permanent residents Mast cells – near blood vessels, release chemicals to elicit injury response

30 3 Fibers Collagen - long and straight, most common fibers, strong but flexible Elastic – branched and wavy, contains elastin, are elastic Reticular – less common, thin, branching, interwoven framework of fibers VI. Connective Tissue Proper

31 Loose or areolar Fewer fibers but all kinds Cushioning and support Deep to skin, between muscles, around vessels Dense Fibrous abundant, organized collagen fibers Tendons and ligaments Dense Regular or Dense irregular VI. Connective Tissue Proper

32 Dense Regular collagen runs parallel, packed tightly, aligned with forces Tendons and ligaments Provides attachements Dense Irregular with collagen to provide support and strength Gives skin its strength VI. Connective Tissue Proper

33 VII. Adipose Adipose Connective Tissue Loose connective Store large droplets of fat Large “marshmellow” looking cells Nuclei squished to one side

34 Blood Plasma: Liquid matrix RBC’s WBC’s Lymphatic System Lymph: fluid portion Part of your immune system VIII. Fluid Connective Tissue

35 Cartilage Connective Tissue Rubbery consistency (matrix) Avascular IX. Supporting Connective

36 Types of Cartilage Hyaline – most common Joints, rib cage, respiratory tract Elastic Mostly elastic fibers, Very flexible Outer ear, nose, epiglottis Fibrocartilage Mostly collagen fibers, durable, strong, tough Backbone (resist compression, absorb shock…) IX. Supporting Connective

37

38 Bone Osteocytes: bone cells Hardest connective tissue Spongy bone Ends of long bones Compact Shafts of long bones Tightly organized IX. Supporting Connective

39 Bone Connective Tissue

40 Three types 1. Skeletal 2. Smooth 3. Cardiac Functions: Cells have ability to contract Locomotion Support Other body movement X: Muscle

41 X: Muscle: Skeletal Voluntary movement Long and cylindrical (up to 25 cm) Transverse striation multi-nucleated

42 X: Muscle: Smooth Involuntary movement Long, spindle shape Single nucleus Internal organs

43 X: Muscle: Cardiac Striations Involuntary One nucleus Intercalated disks Heart muscle

44 XI: Nervous Cells very high ability to Respond to stimuli Transmit impulses Two types of cells Neurons – conduct nerve impulses Neuroglia – provide physical support, maintain chemical composition of tissue fluids, nutrients…

45 XI: Nervous Cell Body(3) Dendrites (5) Axon(1) Can’t be replaced Very LONG cells Create the human “electrical system”


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