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SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FOR A WARMING PLANET Jack Parker, Professor Emeritus Environmental Science, Chemistry Florida International University.

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Presentation on theme: "SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FOR A WARMING PLANET Jack Parker, Professor Emeritus Environmental Science, Chemistry Florida International University."— Presentation transcript:

1 SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FOR A WARMING PLANET Jack Parker, Professor Emeritus Environmental Science, Chemistry Florida International University

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3 GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY  Ocean Degradation/Pollution  Tropical Deforestation, Endangered Species Endangered Species  Water and Food Resources Resources  Population Growth ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE CHANGE {}

4 TROPICAL DEFORESTATION ( ABOUT 15% OF GHG EMISSIONS)  Beef Cattle Grazing  Logging/Paper  Soybean production (food/animal feed) (food/animal feed) AMAZON: droughts/wildfires in 2005/6: more CO 2 than 10yrs of sequestering in 2005/6: more CO 2 than 10yrs of sequestering SAVE THE RAINFOREST!

5 THE HOCKEY STICK GRAPH NATURAL VARIABILITY??

6 DENIALISTS: No Warming Last Decade DISINFORMATION CAMPAIGN Royal Society of London: criticized Exxon's funding of "organizations misinforming the public about the science of climate change" 1 UP 1.6 O F IN LAST 50 YRS LAST 12 MONTHS: WARMEST EVER RECORDED 4 OF THE 5 WARMEST YEARS IN LAST DECADE

7 Up 4 o C or 7 o F more by > THE CLIMATE CRISIS

8 MAJOR FEEDBACKS MAJOR FEEDBACKS Current (In Models)  Melting Glaciers/Sea Ice +  More water vapor + Future (NOT in Models) Future (NOT in Models)  Methane from Permafrost & Seabeds + Permafrost & Seabeds +  More clouds + or –

9 Climate Change Science  U.S. NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: A strong, credible body of scientific evidence shows that climate change is occurring, is occurring, is CAUSED LARGELY BY HUMAN ACTIVITIES, and is CAUSED LARGELY BY HUMAN ACTIVITIES, and POSES SIGNIFICANT RISKS FOR A BROAD RANGE OF HUMAN AND NATURAL SYSTEMS POSES SIGNIFICANT RISKS FOR A BROAD RANGE OF HUMAN AND NATURAL SYSTEMS  97% OF RESEARCH CLIMATE SCIENTISTS SURVEYED SAID HUMANS ARE CAUSING GLOBAL WARMING GLOBAL WARMING

10 OBSERVATIONS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

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12 SURPRISES :RECENT INCREASE IN EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS AUSTRALIA 500 YEAR FLOOD FLOODING IN PAKISTAN (2010 AND 2011) EXPECT MORE PRECIPITATION IN SHORT PERIODS THAILAND 2011

13 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS: WORSE THAN WE THOUGHT! ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS: WORSE THAN WE THOUGHT! ANTARCTICA WARMING ARCTIC SEA ICE NEW ALLTIME LOW 2012 WHAT HAPPENS IN THE ARCTIC DOESN’T STAY IN THE ARCTIC!

14 EXTREME HEAT, DROUGHT, FIRE  JULY 2011:Oklahoma & Texas Hottest monthly temperature ever recorded  July 2012: United States Hottest month ever recorded  2011/12: United States Hottest 12 months ever recorded Hottest 12 months ever recorded Worst Heat/Drought and Wildfires since 1930’s Worst Heat/Drought and Wildfires since 1930’s BALLPLAYER ON STEROIDS

15 SEA LEVEL RISE NEXT TWO DECADES Well-field Area  MIAMI BEACH FLOODING FROM SFWMD FLORIDA 2080? Saltwater Intrusion, 2009 

16 OCEAN and COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS “FUNDAMENTAL AND IRREVERSIBLE TRANSFORMATIONS ”  Temperature up over 1 o F  Ocean Acidification impact on calcifiers impact on calcifiers  Rapid decline in Phytoplankton CORAL REEFS BLEACHING MANGROVES

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18 SOLUTIONS 80% REDUCTION IN CO 2 BY 2050 MIAMI-DADE 2% SOLUTION Up 4 o C or 7 o F more by >

19 HIGHEST PRIORITY: STOP BURNING COAL REPLACE WITH CHP AND NATURAL GAS FRACKING CLEAN COAL??? WHEN???

20 REDUCE NON-CO 2 GHG’S (OFTEN MORE EASILY REDUCED THAN CO 2 )  METHANE Landfills Landfills RecycleRecycle CompostCompost Methane captureMethane capture Meat production Meat production Eat less beef! Eat less beef!  REDUCE TROPICAL DEFORESTATION “Save the Rainforest”  SOOT From cooking, waste burning, forest fires, waste burning, forest fires, diesel engines, ocean ships diesel engines, ocean ships 20% REDUCTION IN SOOT & CO 2 FOOD/YARD WASTES

21 PERSONAL CO 2 EMISSIONS CARBON FOOTPRINT UNITED STATES  20% of World’s Emissions  22 TONS CO 2 /person/year Car ~ 7 tons CO 2 /yr Airplane ~ 2-3 tons CO 2 /yr House ~ 13 tons CO 2 /yr

22 WORST IMPACTS ON POOREST COUNTRIES, WOMEN, FOOD SECURITY DROUGHTS IN AFRICA IMPACTS ON WORLD FOOD SUPPLY

23 CARBON OFFSETS CARBON OFFSETS SOLAR ELECTRIC LIGHT FUND (SELF.org) SOLAR IRRIGATION Haiti: Solar Electricity and Lighting for Partners in Health Clinics

24 SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE SUSTAINABLE COFFEE FAIR TRADED/ORGANIC/SHADE GROWN  Reducing pesticides and fertilizers: Reduces fossil fuel inputs/water pollution fossil fuel inputs/water pollution  Use agricultural waste to make BIOCHAR BIOCHAR … BUY LOCAL

25 URBAN SUSTAINABILITY ELEVATED BUS URBAN DESIGN TREE-SHADED SIDEWALKS BIKING/WALKING GREEN ROOF BUS TUBE CURITIBA

26 REDUCING YOUR TRANSPORTATION CARBON FOOTPRINT NEW U.S. Standards 27.5mpg  35.5mpg by mpg by 2025   Average Car ~1#CO 2 /mile   Conservation Empty the trunk Inflate to max psi on tire (usually 35psi) Combine trips   Car/Truck Purchase: each extra mpg: 700#CO 2 /yr 2010 Prius-50 mpg 2012 PRIUS PLUG-IN HYBRID ~90MPG BIKE SHARING CITY CAR

27 REDUCING THE UHI HABITAT FOR HUMANITY COMMUNITY HOMESTEAD WHITE REFLECTIVE ROOFS AND ENERGY EFFICIENT LANDSCAPING

28 AUTOMOBILE FUEL ALTERNATIVES??  Canadian Tar Sands—low net energy, high pollution, high CO2  Hydrogen Car NOTan energy source, 30 X more costly NOT an energy source, 30 X more costly Not within 20 yrs, maybe never; need fuel cell breakthroughs Not within 20 yrs, maybe never; need fuel cell breakthroughs High pollution if made from coal High pollution if made from coal Clean and renewable if made from solar/wind Clean and renewable if made from solar/wind  Biofuels—Ethanol, Biodiesel

29 SUSTAINABLE BIOFUELS  Substantial reductions in CO 2 emissions  Use plant/agricultural Wastes or algae grown in eutrophic water  Minimal competition with food production with food production  Uses sustainable agriculture, preserves soil soil CELLULOSIC ETHANOL PLANT ALGAE IN WASTEWATER

30 SUSTAINABLE ELECTRICITY  Energy Efficiency and Conservation  Cogeneration-- Combined heat and power—80 GW   Biomass—Agricultural and municipal wastes, wood  Wind  Solar—local and utility scale  Geothermal   Ocean Energy—Tidal, Waves

31 EFFICIENCY/CONSERVATION THE GREENEST ENERGY  Saves money  Lowers trade deficit and increases national security  Increase in jobs (particularly local jobs) Energy Efficient Lights CFL LED CFL LED

32 HANDOUT ON RESIDENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY  Hot Water: Low-flow Showerhead, Solar  Electronics/Computers/Cable Boxes: turn off when not used  Energy-efficient Appliances: Appliances: 1. FRONT-LOADING CLOTHES WASHER 2. REFRIGERATOR 3. DISHWASHER

33 Reduce Air Conditioning by 50%  SMALL, HIGH-EFFICIENCY (SEER 16) AIR CONDITIONER  White Reflective Roof or Radiant Barrier  More Insulation and weather-stripping  Plug Duct Leaks  A.C Thermostat up 1 o F (saves ~5%)  Ceiling Fans (particularly in bedrooms) (particularly in bedrooms)  ENERGY EFFICIENT LANDSCAPING LANDSCAPING

34 ENERGY-EFFICIENT LANDSCAPING REDUCES AIR-CONDITIONING BY 20-40%  Drought-resistant Shade Tree: 60#CO 2 /yr sequestered BUT 600#/yr if energy-efficient landscaping  Plant on East, South and West so that MATURE CANOPIES ARE ADJACENT TO BUILDING WALL UP TO 25 o F COOLER 6 o cooler

35 WIND ENERGY  Increasing almost 30%/yr for last two decades, very large potential  World: 240,000MW, most in Europe, China, and U.S. (Texas, Mid-west)  Major advances in Carbon-fiber blades,Variable speed turbines, Tubular towers  Low Environmental Impacts (birds, aesthetics) (birds, aesthetics)  Renewable and NO CO 2  Costs: 6-10c/kwh, boon to ranchers OFFSHORE WIND & SOLAR WERE TWO THIRDS OF NEW EUROPEAN POWER, 2011

36 SOLAR HOT WATER & ELECTRICITY SOLAR PV CELLS  Increasing about 40%/yr,  Minimal environmental impacts, NO CO 2  But High Costs/Low Efficiency: 12c/kwh  26c/kwh 12c/kwh  26c/kwh Zero-energy Habitat- For-Humanity House SOLAR HOT WATER GREEN JOBS

37 CENTRALIZED SOLAR (10-15c/kwh)  Photovoltaics  Concentrating Solar Power/Solar Thermal trough systems, trough systems, dish/engine systems, and dish/engine systems, and power towers. power towers.

38 SOLAR ENERGY AND CHEMISTRY SOLAR LEAF (Silicon Wafer) H 2 O  O 2 + H 2 ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS 8% EFFICIENT

39 Global Warming is “BREATHTAKING OPPORTUNITIES DISGUISED AS INSOLUBLE PROBLEMS” John Gardner, Founder, Common Cause Founder, Common Cause

40 IMPACT ON HURRICANES

41 IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE  Longer growing season in cold areas  More frequent heavy down-pours  More intense droughts, heat waves  More pest, weeds SUMMER 2012

42 WIND ENERGY: KITE, ROOFTOP AND SKYSCRAPER WINDMILLS

43 Urban Ecology parking lots, EMPTY MALLS

44 CITIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE

45 URBAN TREES AND SUSTAINABILITY SOCIAL JUSTICE AND EDUCATION Florida Urban Forestry Council Award: Outstanding Tree Advocacy Group 

46 Health Impacts

47 GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY  Ocean Degradation/Pollution  Tropical Deforestation, Endangered Species Endangered Species  Water and Food Resources Resources  Population Growth ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE CHANGE {}


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