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Design of Parking Facilities.  Location  Type of Operations  Surface Car Parks  Parking Garage / Underground  Access  Layout  Pedestrian  Bus.

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Presentation on theme: "Design of Parking Facilities.  Location  Type of Operations  Surface Car Parks  Parking Garage / Underground  Access  Layout  Pedestrian  Bus."— Presentation transcript:

1 Design of Parking Facilities

2  Location  Type of Operations  Surface Car Parks  Parking Garage / Underground  Access  Layout  Pedestrian  Bus / Truck Terminal  Other Consideration

3 Location of Parking Facilities experience has shown that an improperly located lot or garage is likely to fail or have limited used, even if located only e few blocks away from the center of parking demand, preferably, parkings lot and garages should be located on or near major arterials;









12 Type of Operations Self Parking, each car is driven only by the parker and the car can be locked when left, delays in retrieving parked vehicles are minimised, and insurance costs are lower for the car park operator Attendant Parking, car is driven by car park operator

13 Valet Parking

14 Surface Car Parks On-Street Parking Off-Street Parking –Parking Lot / Park & Ride / Kiss & Ride –Parking Garage/Underground

15 On-Street Parking




19 Park & Ride Facilities

20 The park-and-ride interchange must be serviced by a public transport system that offer reliable and frequent services in both the inward (to the central area) and outward directions, The onward public transport mode must provide a reliable fast service from the interchange into the central area, The parking fee at the interchange plus the two- way public transport fare should be less than the perceived cost of traveling to the central area by car and parking there,

21 Ample parking space must be provided at the interchange to ensure that parking is easily obtained at all times, The park-and-ride interchange must be properly located, The car park must be well designed and supervised, Ample and continuing publicity must be given to the park-and-ride scheme Park & Ride Facilities

22 Parking Garage / Underground Structurally, multi-storey facilities can also be divided according to whether they are long- or short-span construction, the main disadvantage of a long-span facility is its higher cost

23 Parking Garage / Underground Operationally, long-span construction is preferable because: –it is more adaptable to future changes in car design, –it allows more parking stalls per floor area, –there are fewer columns, so that parking/unparking takes places more quickly with less damage to cars, –visibility is improved for both drivers and pedestrians, and –drivers prefer column-free parking













36 Parking Entrance

37 Entrance & Exit of Parking Garage

38 Parking Garage





43 Parking Garage / Underground Major contributors to extra expense associated with underground car parks include the high costs of: –extensive excavation (magnified if rock is encountered), –the relocation of public utilities, –concrete retaining walls on all sides, –the installation of ongoing dewatering systems,

44 Parking Garage / Underground –the need for a major road load-bearing and waterproof ‘roof’ slab, –artificial lighting (to near daylight quality), –artificial ventilation (to remove dangerous exhaust fumes, and add air for circulation), –special fire-fighting provisions,

45 Parking Entrance

46 Access Distance from near intersection, Entrance on one-way streets should be upstream of exit, Capacity of an entrance is determined by the angle of entry, the type of control used, and the freedom of internal circulation,

47 Access Typical access control operation: –Pay-on-entry/free-exit operation, –Free-entry/pay-on-exit operation, –Free-entry/pay-before-exit operation –Pay and display Garages should have access to two or more streets



50 Parking Disk

51 ParkingMeter

52 ParkingMeter

53 Layout The best parking layout for a given site, usually determined by a process of trial, will depend primarily on these characteristics : –the size and shape of the available area, –type of facility (attendant, self-park, etc.), –type of parker (especially long-term versus short-term), –type of operation (pull-in, back-in, one-way, two-way, etc.)




57 Layout Parking stalls oriented at angles of 45 to 75 o to the aisles are often used with one-way circulation. Where such an arrangement is used to serve a building along the end of a parking lot, driver must circulate at least once next to the building during entry or exit, causing more vehicle-pedestrian conflict than the two-way 90 o arrangement.

58 Layout Extra-wide stalls are desirable for shoppers with packages at convenience grocery stores or in locations adjacent to walls or pillars, whereas narrow ones may be acceptable for commuters to industrial or office developments located on high-cost land or in attendant-parking facilities,

59 Shopping Parking

60 Layout Wider stalls are used for physically handicapped motorists; 3.6 m is the preferred minimum width oh wheelchair users, The number of wide stalls provided for the handicapped is most usually between 1 and 3 percent of the total number of car park spaces, except at car parks frequented by people with disabilities, e.g. at hospitals, when a greater proportion (says 3-4 percent) may be required

61 Parking Space for Disable People




65 Layout The most common and preferred layout pattern is the bumper-to-bumper interlocked configuration, The herringbone or nested interlock pattern is sometimes used with 45 o parking, in that configuration, the bumper of one car faces the fender of another car, necessitating the installation of wheel stops and increasing the probability of vehicular damage,







72 Pedestrian Maximum walking distance a parker will tolerate depends on trip purpose, city size, and cost of parking, Tolerance of longer walking distance also correlates with parking duration. Long-term parkers such as workers and those attending sporting and other special events may be willing to walk a maximum of 600 m,

73 Pedestrian At airports, where travelers are carrying baggage, maximum walking distances from the parking space to the curb front generally should not exceed 300 m, Parking for short-term parkers such as at convenience stores, banks, and fast food establishments should be located within about 30 m of the building entrance, Current American experience is that this walking distance should not exceed 90 to 180 m,

74 Pedestrian In general terms, the smaller the city and the higher the parking cost, the less distance a parker is willing to work Recommended maximum walking distance without a rest by impairment group varies between 50 to 150 m.

75 Pedestrian pedestrian walkways should be well lighted, suitably marked, and free of blind corners, pedestrian conflicts with vehicular traffic should be avoided, most pedestrians prefer overhead bridges to tunnels, if space permits, it is desirable to provide pedestrian sidewalks between adjacent lines of parking cars

76 Other Consideration Coding Lighting Carpark Product

77 Sign / Coding

78 Carpark Products


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