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The Crucible by Arthur Miller

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1 The Crucible by Arthur Miller

2 Hysteria Definition: noun 1. an uncontrollable outburst of emotion or fear, often characterized by irrationality, laughter, weeping, etc. Synonyms: commotion, confusion Examples: Neighbors suddenly turn on each other and accuse people they have known for YEARS Community-wide fear overwhelms logic and individual thought and becomes the justifying means Becomes the means of expressing suppressed anger and resentment (towards others but also towards the strict society of Puritanism) They BELIEVE the devil is attacking Salem

3 Hysteria Cont. If Devil is attacking Salem, it becomes a DUTY or righteous act that protects the God you love, to seek out those who support evil/witchcraft

4 Ideology Definition: noun 1. the body of doctrine, myth, belief, etc., that guides an individual, social movement, institution, class, or large group. -Ideology can be DANGERGOUS!! – these ideas DEFINE what Salem thinks!! -Puritans thought that the Devil would do anything to destroy them -religion ran the government; government actions were seen as “good” -anyone who even ATTEMPTED to question or obstruct government actions was seen as trying to overthrow God

5 Ideology Cont. Governments that followed rigid ideologies = corruption and tyranny Ex) Gov. Danforth and Judge Hathorne Never believe they are wrong- never assess their believes Easy targets for liars, like Abby Court is narrow-minded; easily taken advantage b/c they only have ONE view

6 Reputation & Integrity
noun 1. the estimation in which a person or thing is held, especially by the community or the public generally; repute: a man of good reputation. The way people receive you

7 Reputation & Integrity Cont.
noun 1. adherence to moral and ethical principles; soundness of moral character; honesty. Virtue *In Crucible- reputation or integrity? -Parris, Abby, others, choose reputation -Rebecca, Proctor choose integrity

8 Bad Reputation= social or even physical punishment
Those who protect reputation are DANGEROUS- they allow harm to others and fuel hysteria Those who favor integrity by admitting mistakes and refusing to lie- DEFY hysteria-stop the fear that feeds hysteria

9 Act 1- Hysteria Parris’ house because of Betty’s actions-hysteria begins Rumors of witchcraft become BELIEF in witchcraft- works upon irrational fear Betty and Ruth’s actions Both Putnams WANT witchcraft to exist Betty’s crying out when psalms are sung Witchcraft brings on resentments in Salem- impact characters’ actions as hysteria grows Hysteria is powerful- those who are ‘voices of reason’ cannot stop it Tituba’s accusations of Goody Osburn fuels Mrs. Putnam’s hysteria (Osburn was midwife) Vicious cycle of hysteria continues as Abigail and Betty shout out accusations

10 Act 1- Ideology Bringing Hale into the mix- calling him is dangerous- once religion is involved things escalate Hale is a minister, yet views his beliefs in witchcraft as almost ‘doctor-like’ – these facts help make him unbias When Tituba denies witchcraft, religious officials see it as LIES- they encourage her to admit to false witchcraft Hale believes the girls immediately

11 Act 1- Reputation & Ideology
Parris and Abby want to protect reputations. P- wants no one to know what is going on with Betty A- warning girls NOT to mention what happened in forest Abigail lies to Parris about woods- making herself look good and innocent Abigail lies to Parris about losing Proctor’s Putnams have strong influence on Parris because of their reputation Betty and Ruth act sick to save their reputations Abigail lies about Tituba and Ruth conjuring spirits All the girls try to save face- Abby forces them to lie Proctor is HONEST- knows he is immoral and is self-loathing Accusations against neighbors to try and make self look ‘good’ Putnam and Nurse hatred comes out because of witchcraft accusations

12 R & I Cont. Abby denied witchcraft until Hale mentions there is- she switches stories Tituba tries to save first- denies witchcraft Tituba admits to save herself and reputation Betty and Abigail accuse several girls- continue to save themselves

13 Act 2- Hysteria Hysteria grips town- even authorities- even Proctor has to admit hysteria is present Hysteria encourages confessions of NON-EXISTENT witchcraft Hysteria changes peoples’ perceptions of reality- Mary Warren now believes witchcraft exists Mary gains power from the hysteria surrounding Salem Hysteria provides forum expressing suppressed grievances Mary’s end of Act may be stronger than her integrity- possible disaster ahead

14 Act 2- Ideology Hale has integrity- NOT comfortable with the court situation-wants EVIDENCE, not accusations Puritans -God is on their side, cannot make mistakes Ministers =good and wise Disagree with church- go against God Proctor goes against Hale- Hale ignores his plea; inability to question themselves (religious officials) Hale believes court is blessed by God- court will find truth Court has no need for evidence- God runs it, judgments will be just and correct! Hale thinks courts arrival in Salem is God’s will

15 Act 2- Reputation & Integrity
Proctor and Elizabeth’s marital situation Proctor resists going to court to protect reputation Proctor’s anger over affair-concern for rep. and int. Hale- integrity in searching for evidence Puritans attack each other- against God: evil, agree God: righteous Proctor takes stand against oppressive society- rips up warrant Proctor STOPS protecting rep.- is going to court

16 Act 3- Hysteria Court wants no evidence; continues to accuse several innocent people Abigail and Putnams use hysteria of witchcraft to instill fear in villagers; continue to manipulate the courts Changes Mary Warren’s perception of reality; Mary wasn’t lying but now b/c of girls actions, she really thinks there are spirits Danforth is overcome; doesn’t care about evidence Vicious cycle of hysteria and accusations force Mary to turn against Proctor

17 Act 3- Ideology No evidence needed b/c of belief in witchcraft
Judges dismiss any testimony from Francis Nurse; they think only they are correct b/c God is allied with them Parris believes in witchcraft (different than Act 1) Hale understands the courts blindness Danforth cannot comprehend the court being unfair- those who are afraid of the court are guilty Danforth thinks he can perceive the truth b/c he is Puritan Dep. Gov. Hale wants to focus on evidence; Danforth needs none Danforth threatens Mary that she’ll hang unless confesses; she does; power and danger of ideology

18 Act 3- Reputation & Integrity
Parris shouts out that Proctor is overthrowing court, as Danforth is about to hear Mary’s testimony Parris supports court Cheever and Parris try to ruin Proctor; ripping warrant, not going to church Proctor shows integrity by refusing to be satisfied just by his wife’s protection court views petition of 91 landowners as attack on court Proctor reveals Abby laughing in church Parris kept witnessing girls dancing; now he must reveal truth Proctor sacrifices reputation and holds integrity; reveals affair- Abby denies “God is dead”- Proctor

19 Act 4- Hysteria Proctors death ENDS THE HYSTERIA- finally!
Hysteria has overcome Tituba and Sarah Good- believe their confessions Danforth is BLIND as to why Hale has actually returned Hysteria has caused 12 to be hanged; no pardons The hysteria did cause hundreds to falsely confess to save themselves Proctors death ENDS THE HYSTERIA- finally!

20 Act 4- Ideology Learning that Parris is with Hale makes Hathorne and Parris nervous- wrong?? Danforth thinks Hale has seen the error of his ways- he is blinded by religion Abby robbing Parris and fleeing SHOULD reveal her as a liar Events in Andover reveal accusations as false Danforth will not postpone; his decisions reflect God’s will; make him look weak, “whimpering” Lying is a sin; ideological blindness forced people to save their lives, damn their souls Proctor’s confession hung on church door; Danforth and Hathorne are overjoyed If God knows all, why do they need a signed confession? To make them look right- show their authority

21 Act 4- Reputation & Integrity
Parris, as usual, only cares about himself- worried about events in Andover – and niece leaving Danforth won’t postpone- make him look bad Hale urging confessions to save their life, even though he shouldn’t be encouraging lying Hale is embittered by the blindness of Salem’s religious- only choice is to defy them Elizabeth tells Proctor only he can save himself, his integrity Elizabeth shows integrity- admitting driving Proctor away Proctor sacrifices integrity by confessing and saving his life Judges must condemn him to show power Rebecca chooses integrity over life Proctor will not, does not accuse any; eventually rips confession Danforth cares nothing for Proctor’s soul; only himself Proctor’s choice (integrity) affirms his goodness

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