6.2 Emailing Ex. 2 Word Bank strike a deal / cut a deal: sack: ( Br. E ) informal to dismiss someone from their job [= fire] tribunal: a type of court that is given official authority to deal with a particular situation or problem recipient: be in the loop/be out of the loop: informal to be or not be part of a group of people who make important decisions compulsion: a strong and unreasonable desire to do something fire sth. off: to quickly send an angry letter to someone undo: to try to remove the bad effects of something you have done
1 Dear [ ] Would you please send me details of the next health and safety training event? I’m aware that it is due in the near future. Regards [ ] 2 Dear [ ] Thanks for reminding me. The training event takes place on the 3 rd September from 9-5 in the conference rooms. Please inform all department managers and forward the attached documents which are to be read before the event. Thanks [ ]
3 Dear Department Managers, Would you all please note that the next health and safety training event takes place on the 3 rd September from 9-5 in the conference rooms. As you know this is a legal requirement. Please also find attached documents which you should be familiar with before the event. Thanks for your cooperation. [ ] 4 Dear [ ] Thanks for informing the managers. Unfortunately, the training event has been postponed. The reason is the trainer is unavailable. He has suggested the 23 rd September, so can you let all managers know? Sorry for the inconvenience. [ ]
5 Dear Department Managers, Following my previous email, I am writing to inform you of a change in date to the health and safety training event. Due to the unavailability of the trainer on the 3 rd September, the event will now take place on the 23 rd. All other details remain the same. Apologies for any inconvenience caused. [ ]
7.1 Sales Ex. 1 vet: veterinary surgeon ( Br E formal ) veterinarian ( Am E ) someone who is trained to give medical care and treatment to sick animals Ex. 2 glamour: the attractive and exciting quality of being connected with wealth and success glamorous retain: jolly: adj. especially British English happy and enjoying yourself tangible: clear enough or definite enough to be easily seen or noticed passionate: buzz: sales pitch: the statements and promises that someone makes in an attempt to persuade someone else to buy something
Reasons for choosing marketingReasons for choosing sales
Ex. 2 Reasons for choosing marketingReasons for choosing sales · sounds better at dinner parties · has an air of glamour ·you work on creative PR campaigns and go on lots of jollies · marketing seems more attractive · it isn’t as bad as myths suggest · unlike marketing, sales is tangible · it has direct impact on a company’s · results · you meet people and communicate with different personalities · in sales there’s a buzz of a target-driven environment · you can manage millions of pounds of business · make customers happy · it’s incredibly rewarding
Sales and costs Sales Sales describes what a business sells and the money it receives for it. Denise van Beek of Nordsee Marine is having a sales meeting with her sales team: 'Our sales figures and turnover (money received from sales) in the last year are good, with revenue (money from sales) of 14.5 million euros, on volume of 49 boats. This is above our target of 13 million euros. We estimate our sales growth next year at ten per cent, as the world economy looks good and there is demand for our products, so my sales forecast is nearly 16 million euros for next year. I'm relying on you!‘ Here are some more uses of the word 'sale': a make a sale: sell something b be on sale: be available to buy c unit sales: the number of things sold d Sales: a company department e A sale: a period when a shop is charging less than usual for goods f The sales: a period when a lot of shops are having a sale
Ex. 1 Match the word combinations (1 -7) to their definitions (a-f). 1. figures a. money received from sales ( 2 expressions) 2. forecast b. sales aimed for a in a particular period 3. growth c. the number of things sold sales 4. revenue d. increase in sales 5. target e. statistics showing the amount sold 6. turnover f. sales predicted in a particular period 7. volume 1e2f 3d4a5b6a7c
Ex. 2 a. make a sale b. be on sale c. unit sales d. Sales e. A sale f. The sales Match each use of the word 'sale' with the correct meaning (a-f) from B opposite 1e2d3a4f5b6c
Costs The money that a business spends are its costs: direct costs are directly related to providing the product (e.g. salaries). fixed costs do not change when production goes up or down (e.g. rent, heating, etc.). variable costs change when production goes up or down (e.g. materials). cost of goods sold (COGS): the variable costs in making particular goods (e.g. materials and salaries). indirect costs, overhead costs or overheads are not directly related to production (e.g. adminstration). Some costs, especially indirect ones, are also called expenses. Costing is the activity of calculating costs. Amounts calculated for particular things are costings.
Ex. 3 Choose the correct expression from C opposite to describe Nordsee Marine's costs. 1. the salary of an office receptionist (direct / indirect cost) 2. heating and lighting of the building where the boats are made (fixed / variable cost) 3. the materials used in the boats, and the boatbuilders' salaries (overhead cost /COGS) 4. running the office (overhead / direct cost) 5. wood used in building the boats (fixed / variable cost) 6. the salary of a boatbuilder (direct / indirect cost) 1.indirect cost2.fixed cost3. COGS 4. overhead5. variable cost6. direct cost
Margins and mark-ups Here are the calculations for one of Nordsee's boats: selling price = 50,000 euros direct production costs = 35,000 euros selling price minus direct production costs = gross margin = 15,000 euros total costs = 40,000 euros selling price minus total costs = net margin, profit margin or mark-up =10,000 euros The net margin or profit margin is usually given as a percentage of the selling price, in this case 20 per cent. The mark-up is usually given as a percentage of the total costs, in this case 25 per cent.
Ex. 4 Read what this company owner says and answer the questions. 'I'm Vaclav and I own a small furniture company in Slovakia. We make a very popular line of wooden chairs. Each costs 360 korunas to make, including materials and production. We estimate overheads, including administration and marketing costs, at 40 korunas for each chair, and we sell them to furniture stores at 500 korunas each.‘ What is the gross margin for each chair? What is the net margin for each chair? What is the mark-up for each chair as a percentage of total costs? What is the profit margin for each chair as a percentage of the selling price? 1.140 korunas2. 100 korunas 3. 25%4. 20%
Introduction Usually the task of making a list, or a set of notes, will be in Question 3 of the examination paper. The key to making a good start to such questions is to read the whole question before doing anything else. Often there will be small additions to the rubric such as 'the committee is only interested in...'. If you then produce an otherwise excellent list but include material additional to that asked for, the mark for content has to be low.
Layout There are many ways of writing lists but the layout should have at least a title and most often numbered or bulleted points. Other graphic devices can be helpful especially white space, headings and sub-headings. Very few people agree about how to punctuate a list. The LCCIEB accepts any suitable system, but you must use it consistently. If you start your list using one method of punctuation, keep to it. Here are some of the acceptable ways.
1 You learn through exercises and analyses of answers how to: · write lists that meet the stated purpose · select language that suits the aim of the list · produce a usable list · punctuate a list. 2You learn through exercises and analyses of answers how to: · write lists that meet the stated purpose, · select language that suits the aim of the list, · produce a usable list, · punctuate a list. 3You learn through exercises and analyses of answers how to: · write lists that meet the stated purpose; · select language that suits the aim of the list; · produce a usable list; · punctuate a list.
Some writers use a capital letter at the start of each line of a list. You will not lose marks if you do so, but it does break an important convention in the use of capital letters if the line is not a sentence. A capital letter may reasonably start each of the lines if the statements are full sentences. 4 You learn through exercises and analyses how to write lists that meet the stated purpose. · Your lists will use suitable language. · They will be usable. · They will have logical punctuation. In all questions at Second Level, analysis of the information is important. For a question asking for a list or notes it is even more so. Make certain that the list is suitable for the stated purpose. There should not be any unnecessary words or phrases. The language should be very clear and as brief as possible. Frequently note-form is best for lists.
The suggested approach is: 1. read all the text and information carefully 2. decide what is important because of who wants the list and why 3. regroup the information and look for sub-groups
Exercise I Question The Staff Training Officer at the firm where you are employed, Miss Paloma Alvarez, tells you that she is organising a document to advise staff on how to deal with the various situations that may arise in a busy office. She gives you the following extract from a magazine article and asks you to write a list of the important points that she can refer to later. There is a known link between facial expressions and our tone of voice; people being trained to sell products over the phone are often told to 'put a smile' in their voices. Everyone who uses the phone in business should practise this skill so that a good image is given of the firm and the products or services offered. We should not forget that when we speak on the phone we cannot rely on the smile or nod which aids direct conversations. Our voices and the tone we use have to convey the message without any visual help. We should also make sure that our callers are never left wondering if we have forgotten them. Never keep a caller 'hanging on' listening to background conversations or some dull piece of music while you try to find the information or person asked for. If you have to invite a caller to wait, explain the reason for the delay and from time to time give reassurances that you are still attending to the matter. If you anticipate considerable delay, offer to return the call at a time when the query can be dealt with immediately. Similarly, if you have to transfer the call to another extension, explain what is going to happen and do not replace your receiver until you are sure that the transfer has been made.
Content Exercise 2 Write down what you think is the important information. Organisation Exercise 3 What order would you use for the notes and which graphic devices would you want?
Content Suggested answer to Exercise 2 Your list of points probably looks something like this: A 'smile' in the voice helps to: · give a good image · provide lightness to a message Callers are important, and so: · no 'hanging on' · explain delay · reassure them If considerable wait is likely: · offer to call back · guarantee resolution · explain transfer and check that the transfer has taken place.
Organisation, format & presentation of content Making a list is the only task set at Second Level English for Business that probably will not fit the Content Pattern. A list is a message 'cut to its bones'. The Introduction and Close are often missed out so that the answer is as short as possible. Suggested answer to Exercise 3 A 'smile' in the voice - good image - lightness of tone. Importance of callers - must not be kept waiting - explain delays - reassure that call is being answered. If long wait - offer to call back - guarantee the call will not be forgotten. If you transfer a call - explain that is what you are doing - check that transfer is complete. When you think about graphic devices for a list, the most important one is white space. The list must not be a long mass of words. Sub-headings and bullets or numbers will very often be useful.
Write the answer Main points from article on dealing with business telephone calls A 'smile' in the voice helps to: 1 give a good image of a firm and its product/service 2 add 'lightness' to what is said. Callers are important. Therefore: ·do not keep them 'hanging on' ·if there is a delay, explain it ·reassure them that their call is being dealt with. If there is likely to be a considerable wait: ·offer to call back ·guarantee that the matter will be resolved. If you need to transfer a call: ·explain what you are doing ·do not put down your receiver before checking that the transfer has been completed.
Exercise 4 Situation You work at Boxfiles, a superstore for office supplies. The address is 154-158 Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 4BX. The General Manager is Mrs Gillian Minister. Question Mrs Minister gives you an article from a local newspaper, the Headingmoor Gazette. She says, 'This is about the visit we recently had from pupils of the Headingmoor High School. I have to speak to the Headingmoor Rotary Club about it next week. Obviously I shall do most of the preparation for it myself, but it will be a great help if you can make a list of the main points from this newspaper article for me.'
DELIGHTS IN STORE Pupils from Headingmoor received a taste of business life in their half-term holiday, looking into the world of work at the Boxfiles Office Supplies Superstore in Leeds. Twelve pupils aged 11 to 12 from Headingmoor High School spent a day at the store talking with staff about how different departments work, learning about the store's customer service, and trying out the many products sold by the store including the amazing range of computers. Staff at Boxfiles volunteered to come in on their day off to demonstrate the company's equipment to the pupils. At the end of the day, the children had to fill in a booklet to see how much they had remembered or discovered. Mrs Gillian Minister, the General Manager, said, 'I was amazed at how much they learned. Every one of the pupils did very well and they should be proud of themselves. With the School's permission we would love to make this an annual event.' All the pupils received a special selection of pens, pencils and notebooks with their own names printed on them, and a certificate to recognise their day spent in a major store. When the School had asked for volunteers for the day the response had been overwhelming. Mrs Benton, Director of Lower School Studies, said, 'There was so much enthusiasm, it was difficult to decide who should go. I know the lucky ones enjoyed the experience.' Boxfiles also received a surprise when Mrs Minister was presented with a letter of thanks, signed by all the pupils who attended, and a framed photograph of the children, which was inscribed, 'Headingmoor High School pupils thank the staff of Boxfiles for introducing them to the world of work.'
The grouping and sequence could be: Background - 12 pupils - ages - school - visit Boxfiles Reason - experience work - talk to staff - try out products - customer service - learning check Boxfiles - volunteers - ‘day off’ Results - fun - learning - gifts and certificates - letter of thanks plus photograph - possibly annual event.