Presentation on theme: "The Dynamics of Mass Communication Joseph R. Dominick Seventh Edition."— Presentation transcript:
The Dynamics of Mass Communication Joseph R. Dominick Seventh Edition
Part 4 Specific Media Professions
Chapter 13 Public Relations
Defining Public Relations as defined by the World Assembly of Public Relations “Public relations is the art and social science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counseling organization leaders and implementing planned programs of action which serve both the organization’s and the public’s interests.”
Defining Public Relations Defining Public Relations (Con’t) Though somewhat similar in that they both try to persuade, public relations and advertising have essential differences: advertising is a marketing function public relations is a function of management advertising uses all communication forms except interpersonal public relations uses every communication form advertising is sponsored (paid for) public relations messages are usually free
Defining Public Relations Defining Public Relations (Con’t) Common practices at times misinterpreted as public relations: press agentry press agentry staging media events to attract public attention publicity publicity attempting to place favorable stories in the media While PR staffers may use these tools at times, the scope of public relations as a whole is much broader in scope and purpose.
Defining Public Relations Defining Public Relations (Con’t) What public relations people actually do: PR involves interpreting, monitoring, and trying to influence public opinion for its own parent organization. publics. PR concerns itself with communicating and explaining the actions of its parent organization to its various publics. PR is a management function, its main purpose to council and assist management in setting and achieving goals.
SHORT HISTORY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS broadly interpreted, people throughout history have tried to influence public opinion. The key to calling that practice “public relations” is in the manner in which that influencing is done, for whom, and why. American revolutionaries staged events, designed symbols (flags, mottos), and wrote extensively trying to win favor for the Revolution’s cause, an early but conscious and effective public relations effort.
SHORT HISTORY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS Ivy Lee opens first PR office in 1903, tries “humanizing” business as a PR objective. Reverses negative opinion about his early client, the Rockefeller family empire. President Wilson uses PR tactics in WW I to persuade citizens to save food, buy war bonds. Edward Bernays writes Crystallizing Public Opinion in 1923, first book to define public relations as a practice. Carl Byoir opens his famous PR agency in 1930. Roosevelt uses “fireside talks” as PR tool in Depression to reassure people that his recovery plans were working.
How Social Changes Have Affected Public Relations Companies are acknowledging their social responsibilities. Consumerism movements have forced organizations to be more responsive and communicative to the public. The increasing size and complexity of modern organizations has necessitated a centralized public relations department. Population growth and workplace specialization mandates the need for PR specialists trained to interpret the needs of various publics for their parent organization.
ORGANIZATION OF THE PUBLIC RELATIONS INDUSTRY Internal vs. external PR departments; both have distinct advantages and disadvantages. An internal department (on the company payroll): has more in-depth knowledge about the company, can be assigned, working on project on short notice, offers cost savings with cheaper in-house operations. External PR agencies, by contrast, offer fresh, objective viewpoints and greater operational flexibility.
ORGANIZATIONS WHICH COMMONLY USE PUBLIC RELATIONS entertainment sports international PR investor relations political groups crisis management businesses government education hospitals nonprofit organizations professional associations
PR Departments and Staff Though no two PR department structures are identical, their one similarity is that the PR director reports directly to top management
A Typical Public Relations Campaign Information Gathering Information Gathering Planning Planning strategic tactical MBO management by objectives, or MBO Communication Communication Evaluation Evaluation
Public Relations Online The Internet has already had a significant impact on how PR professionals gather information and communicate messages to their various publics. For example: Internet has streamlined how PR data is distributed to media PR staffs can more easily monitor their efforts in the media The Internet offers a huge creative and information resource Company web pages are now directed, produced by PR staff downside: easier corporate sabotage; many of the Internet’s strengths can easily be turned against an organization
Public Relations End of Chapter 13 Public Relations