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B2B Advertising.

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Presentation on theme: "B2B Advertising."— Presentation transcript:

1 B2B Advertising

2 The Role of Advertising
Integrated Communication Programs. Enhancing Sales Effectiveness. Increased Sales Efficiency. Creating Awareness.

3 Advertising Cannot be a Substitute for effective personnel selling. Cannot, by itself, create product preference.

4 Advertising is only one aspect of the entire marketing strategy.
The Decision Stages for Developing the Business-to-Business Advertising Program Advertising is only one aspect of the entire marketing strategy. The advertising decision process begins with the formulation of advertising objectives. Equally important is the evaluation and selection of the media.

5 Setting Ad Budgets: Commonly Used Methods
Percentage of Sales Allocate some percent of sales to advertising. Makes advertising a consequence rather than a determinant of sales and profits. Useful only if possess VALID historical data Most commonly used method

6 Setting Ad Budgets: Commonly Used Methods
Affordability Method Firm spends on advertising what it has available to spend Good cash flow control Most common with small firms Sales drive the advertising

7 Setting Ad Budgets: Commonly Used Methods
Objective-Task Method An attempt to relate advertising costs to the objective it is to accomplish. Focuses on the communications effects of advertising, not on the sales effects. Generally considered the “best” method.

8 Developing the B2B Advertising Message
Determine advertising objectives. Evaluate buying criteria of target audience. Analyze most appropriate language for presenting message.

9 Organizing the Sales Force

10 Typical Methods of Organizing the Sales Force
Line Organizations (& Line/Staff) Functional Organizations Specialization Organization Sales Activities Geographic Areas Products Customers

11 A Simple Line Organization

12 A Two-Level Line Organization

13 Line Organizations Characteristics
Authority/responsibility for planning/implementing sales activities lie in hands of sales manager. Each person has only one boss.

14 Line Organizations Advantages Very simple to understand and use.
Easy to trace accountability. Relatively inexpensive (only a few highly-paid executives are necessary) Quick action possible since decision-making is in hands of relatively few people.

15 Line Organizations Disadvantages
As organization size increases, problems become more complex. Specialized skills often needed. Many sales managers cannot keep on top of all functions that relate to sales. Lack of trained replacements.

16 Line Organizations Implications
Best used by small organizations where operations can be clearly divided into basic functions of sales, finance, and production.

17 Line and Staff Organizations
Characteristics Same as line organization except staff positions added Staff positions don’t have authority over line positions Advantages Staff provide sales manager with specialized skills Allows sales manager to be more efficient/ effective. Doesn’t dilute his/her authority/contact w/salespeople.

18 A Line & Staff Organization

19 Line and Staff Organizations
Disadvantages Can be more expensive than a line organization. Conflicts may arise between line & staff executives. Staff executives may attempt to exert authority over line personnel. Line executives may ignore the counsel of the staff

20 Line and Staff Organizations
Implications If sales managers find themselves spending less time working with subordinates and more time performing planning & evaluating functions, may want to consider this organization

21 Functional Organizations
Characteristics Organization divided by function. Functional specialists have line authority. Salespeople report to multiple bosses. Advantages Specialist ensure their functions are carried out. Should improve performance in each functional area due to the specialization.

22 A Functional Organization

23 Functional Organizations
Disadvantages Breakdown in the unity of command due to conflicting orders Each salesperson is no longer accountable to only one boss Implications Typically used in large firms that feature numerous functions and that have the need for several specialists.

24 Centralized vs. Decentralized? Factors That Influence
Size of Sales Force As sales force size increases, the need to decentralize increases. Span-of-control problems emerge More field managers will be necessary Decentralization more feasible

25 Organizing by Sales Activities
Characteristics Usually employ simple line organizations Separate selling functions (present account maintenance and new account development) Advantages Allows salespeople to become proficient in their respective sales functions. Places special emphasis on searching out and selling new accounts.

26 Line Organization Structured by Sales Activities

27 Organizing by Sales Activities
Disadvantages Customers may resent being turned over to a different salesperson. Salespeople may want to cultivate the accounts they have developed.

28 Organizing by Sales Activities
Implications Use when there is a large turnover of customers Use when there is a significant difference in the skills needed in each separate area Use when fast growth through new account acquisition is deemed necessary

29 Organizing by Geographic Areas
Characteristics Sales force is reorganized on a geographic basis Salespeople sell all the company’s present products to all customers within their assigned territories

30 Line Organization Structured by Geographic Area

31 Organizing by Geographic Areas
Advantages Salespeople and managers become more familiar with their territories Local problems may be solved more quickly Sales force can rapidly react to changes in the local competitive environment Can provide better service at lower cost Lower chance for customer confusion

32 Organizing by Geographic Areas
Disadvantages Diversity/magnitude of product line may limit salesperson’s knowledge of any one product Duplication of overhead expense Greater level of salesperson control (which products to push, which customers to service) Implications Best used if product line is relatively homogeneous Best used if customers are widely dispersed

33 Organizing by Products
Characteristics Sales force is reorganized on a product basis Salespeople specialize in particular products carried by the sales organization

34 Sales Force Organized by Products

35 Organizing by Products
Advantages Each product line receives a higher degree of specialized attention Allows for decentralization of both authority & responsibility for each product line Allows decisions to be made closer to the problems with any particular product line

36 Organizing by Products
Disadvantages If specialization occurs above salesperson level, additional overhead expense may be suffered. More than 1 salesperson may be calling on customers Difficult to maintain a consistent image

37 Organizing by Products
Implications Best used if product line is relatively heterogeneous Best used if have a wide variety of customers with quite different needs Best used if products are technically complex Broad, in-depth knowledge of product essential for the sales task

38 Organizing by Customers
Characteristics Sales force is reorganized on a customer basis Salespeople specialize in selling to/ servicing particular customer types

39 Sales Force Organized by Customers

40 Organizing by Customers
Advantages Most consumer oriented approach Organization of sales force is based on customer needs Control remains at the management level (which customers to call on, etc) Allows salespeople to specialize in customer needs

41 Organizing by Customers
Disadvantages Potential for overlapping territories is high Hence, overhead costs may rise Salespeople must become knowledgeable about company’s entire line of products

42 Organizing by Customers
Implications Customers in a given market buy several different products/lines from single supplier Same buying factors apply across product lines Significant proportion of income is derived from a small number of accounts who require high service levels

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