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EDUCATION AND GENDER WAGE GAP IN GREECE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS.

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Presentation on theme: "EDUCATION AND GENDER WAGE GAP IN GREECE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS."— Presentation transcript:

1 EDUCATION AND GENDER WAGE GAP IN GREECE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

2 Table 16 Secondary Public and Private Education in Greece, School Year Boys Girls Men Women Junior High Schools 175, ,299 13,768 27,661 High Schools 113, ,811 13,248 13,368 Technical Vocational Schools 65,734 36,643 9,601 7,578 Total 355, ,753 36,617 48,607 Schools Students Teachers

3 Table 14 Women in Higher Education Postgraduate Students Year Total Women % WomenTotal Women % Women , , % 42,930 21,283 49,58% , , % 47,784 24,464 51,20% , , % 49,347 24,754 50,16%

4 Table 4 Women’s participation in responsible posts within the Public Sector Rates of women’s participation in head posts in Ministries, PLLE and LGO General Directors No class or post stipulated 40.4% 37.7% Ministries: 40% PLLE: 69.6% LGO: 36.7% Average: 48.9% Directors 24.5% 36% 34.5% Ministries: 35.5% PLLE: 62.2% LGO: 39.4% Average: 45.7% Department Heads 37.8% 50.7% 46.3% Ministries: 46.4% PLLE: 76.3% LGO: 44% Average: 55.6% Average 31.15% 42.3% 39.5% 50.1%

5 5 PARTICIPATION OF GENDER GROUPS IN ENGINEERING WORKPLACE HUMAN RESOURCE & DEVELOPMENT % Chg in M/F Gap % of Engineering Degrees Male Female M/F Gap Male Female M/F Gap % % of Workforce Participation 66% 34% 32%68% 32% 36%12.5% ENGINEERING DEGREES AWARDED FROM 2004 TO 2008 Degree AwardedWomenMen % Gap Between Men & Women Architecture % Civil Engineering % Computer Science Engineering % Electrical Engineering % Electronic Engineering % Mechanical Engineering % Total  %

6 Σύνολο Total MalesFemales skilfulnessLowMediumHighLowMediumHighLowMediumHigh Greece 40,841,617,640,541,418,141,141,817,1 ΕU ,847,319,932,148,019,933,546,619,9 Table 1 Persons employed, years, by education level and skillfulness ( ISCED code ), in Greece and Europe an Union, 2005 Source : European Commission DG-Employment and Social Affairs, Employment in Europe 2006.

7 Table 2 Participation % in Labour Force years, by εducation (ISCED level, ( ISCED code ), in Greece και and European Union, 2003 TotalLow level of Education Medium level of Education High level of Education Greece ΕU- 15 ΕU- 25 Greece ΕU-15 ΕU-25Greece ΕU-15ΕU-25 Greece ΕU-15ΕU-25 63,869,969,254,355,753,066,076,175,586,386,8 Source : European Commission DG-Em ployment and Social Affairs, Employment in Europe 2006

8 Table 19 Employment and Unemployment Percentages per Sex, 2004 and 2008 EmploymentPercentage Unemployment Percentage Men Women

9 Table 3 3 (ISCED rates in Greece and European Union, by education level and sex, Low level of Education Medium level of Education High level of Education Greece ΕU-15 ΕU-25 Greece ΕU-15ΕU-25Greece ΕU-15ΕU-25 Total Employment rate49,549,246,260,770,168,381,282,5 Part-time rate5,418,518,34,220,917,93,515,814,5 Unemployment rate9,611,812,812,48,19,67,95,1 Males Employment rate74,060,857,074,376,374,688,086,0 Part-time rate2,26,46,82,16,6,21,66,46,1 Unemployment rate6,310,411,57,6 9,04,6 3,7 Females Employment rate32,338,036,047,463,861,875,278,9 Part-time rate11,937,135,77,538,432,66,026,423,9 Unemployment rate15,513,714,618,98,810,411,85,75,8 Employment rate : Persons employed years, as percentage of population years Part - time rate : Percentage % of total Employment Unemployment rate : Unemployment persons 15 years and over as Percentage % of labour force Source : European Commission DG-Employment and Social Affairs, Employment in Europe 2006.

10 Table 4 Labour Force by education level and sex (2007) (in thousands ) education levelFemalesMalesBoth sexes Received a post graduate qualifications37,05390,3 Received a university degree392,6415,9808,5 Received a third-level technical-vocational institutional degree 389,0409,9798,9 Completed secondary level education628,1999,01627,1 Completed the third stage of 6-year secondary education 171,2381,7552,9 Completed primary education 359,5 617,5977,0 completed primary education14,818,733,5 Attended no school at all9,09,618,6 Total 2.001,32.905, ,9 Source : National Statistical Service of Greece

11 Table 5 Persons employed, by education level and sex Females Males education level Received a post graduate qualifications 11,233,921,150,6 Received a university degree 299,8361,3359,0399,5 Received a third-level technical-vocational institutional degree 252,0326,9306,1379,8 Completed secondary level education 467,3521,3830,0939,5 Completed the third stage of 6-year secondary education 121,9140,2348,3361,1 Completed primary education 389,8317,9740,7582,0 completed primary education 22,313,726,817,9 Attended no school at all 15,17,313,08,3 Total 1.579,51.722,42.644,92.738,8 Source : National Statistical Service of Greece (in thousands)

12 Table 6 Persons employed 15 years end over with part-time job by education level and sex (2007) education levelFemalesMalesBoth sexes Received a post graduate qualifications2,01,73,7 Received a university degree27,19,236,4 Received a third-level technical- vocational institutional degree 24,07,731,7 Completed secondary level education52,823,075,8 Completed the third stage of 6-year secondary educ. 20,410,030,4 Completed primary educ. 51,322,473,7 Have completed primary education2,91,94,8 Attended no school at all1,80,42,1 Σύνολο Total 182,376,3258,6 Source : National Statistical Service of Greece ( 1 st quarter 2007, in thousands )

13 Table 7 Unemployed females 15years end over by education level and age groups (2007) AGE GROUPS education level15-19 years years25-29 years30-44 years45-64 years65 years and over Total Females8,8 46,157,0117,549,10,3 Received a post graduate qualific ,80, Received a university degree ,59,012,72, Βαθμός Received a third-level te chnical-vocational institute. degree 0,3 13,418,326,04, Completed secondary level education 5,8 20,619,344,916, Completed the third stage of 6- year secondary educ. 1,7 3,55,215,65, Completed primary educ.1,0 3,416,519,30,3 completed primary educ ,11, Attended no school at all , ,90, Source: National Statistical Service of Greece (1st quarter 2007, in thousands)

14 Table 8 Unemployed males 15 years end over by education level and age groups (2007) AGE GROUPS education level15-19 years20-24 years25-29 years30-44 years45-64 years65 years and over Total males7,330,740,057,830,40,6 Received a post graduate qualific ation ,41,20,80, Received a university degree ,26,47,41, Received a third-level technical- vocational institute. degree 0,16,511,19,22,90,3 Completed secondary level educ.4,115,813,120,95, Completed the third stage of 6-year secondary educ. 0,93,45,09,02, Completed primary educ.2,13,33,110,116,60,3 Have not completed primary educ ,20, Attended no school at all0,10, ,30, Source: National Statistical Service of Greece (1st quarter 2007, in thousands)

15 Table 9 9 Persons employed 15 years end over by education level, occupational status and sex (2007) education levelEmployersOwn-account workersSalaries employeesUnpaid family workers Total Females73,8285,01.175,2188,5 Received a post graduate qualifications1,26,226,10,4 Received a university degree17,9 44, ,57,1 Received a third-level technical-vocational institutional degree 10,526,9277,511,9 Completed secondary level education23,566,5378,652,7 Completed the third sta ge of 6-year secondary educ.8,125,984,222,0 Completed primary education11,9107,2113,485,3 Have not completed primary education 0,55,32,05,9 Attended no school at all0,22,21,83,1 Total males288,3679,51.663,4107,6 Received a post graduate qualifications3,37,439,60,4 Received a university degree46,875,5272,84,4 Received a third-level technical-vocational institutional degree 32,455,6281,710,2 Completed secondary level education105,3191,9596,645,7 Completed the third stage of 6-year secondary educ.36,997,1209,417,7 Completed primary education61,5238,6254,727,2 Have not completed primary education 1,410,15,01,4 Attended no school at all0,73,43,60,7 Source: National Statistical Service of Greece (1st quarter 2007, in thousands)

16 TABLE – Statistics on women’s status in Greece and in the European Union Reference Greece European Union Women Men Women Men Employment rates (women and men aged 15-65), % 73.5% 58.6% 70.7% Employment rates (women and men aged 15-24), % 27.7% 33.1% 37.2% Employment rates (women and men aged ), % 64.3% 44.6% 61.95% Unemployment rates (women and men aged 15-64), % 9.7% 10.2% 9.9% Unemployment rates (women and men aged % 25.5% 19.5% 20.7% Unemployment rates (women and men aged 25-64), % 8.6% 9.2% 8.7% Share of long-term unemployed (women and men 15 and over), in % 2.4% 3.1% 2.9% Pay gap in EU Member States, in % 17.5% Percentages of inactive and partially active women due to the lack of care services for children and the elderly (Ju 68.5% _ 26.7% 25.9% Care of children at the age of 0-3 (Barcelona target is 33%) (2005) 7.0% 24.0% Care of children from 3 years old up to the age of compulsory education (Barcelona target is 90%) (2005) 60.0% 82.4% Women and men with High Education level, in % 41.0% 59.0% 41.0% Unemployment rates by sex and educational attainment level (PhD or Master degree holders), in % 5.8% 4.8% 3.7% Participation rates (women and men) in National Parliaments 17.3% 82.7% 26.0% 74.0% European Commission,

17 Participation rates (women and men) in senior posts in enterprises, in % 71.0% 32.5% 67.5% Participation rates (women and men) in Boards of Directors of the biggest listed companies, in % 95.0% 11.0% 89.0% in decision-making Population percentage 18 years old at the risk of poverty, in % 19.6% 17.5% 15.6% Employees at the risk of poverty, in % 15.9% 7.9% 9% Non employed persons at the risk of poverty, in % 23% 25% 23% Unemployed persons at the risk of poverty, in % 41% 39% 47% Pensioners at the risk of poverty, in % 20.8% 21.2% 15% Other inactive persons at the risk of poverty, % 27% 28% 26% Deaths of women – victims of domestic violence (homicides 2007) 10 women victims Public Security Division, 1st Special Crime Squad Deaths of women – victims of domestic violence (homicides 2008) 17 women victims Deaths of women – victims of domestic violence (homicides 2009) 13 women

18 Table 1 Women’s participation in the National Parliament Year Total Women % Women A slight improvement from 43 (9%) in the 1999 election to 61 (11.09%) in the 2004 election. Electoral system used in 1999 is proportional with closed-list system. In the 2004 election, the proportion is “half-opened”. Meaning that the internal mechanism in the political party still have the strong hold of the political party list in the recruitment system.

19 Table 2 Rates of women candidates for regional, municipal and local councils 2006 women candidates for Municipal Elections 32% women candidates for Region Councils 29% women candidates for Local Councils 36%

20 Table 3 European Elections Results, 2004 & 2009 per gender Seats Women Men % Women

21 21  High percentage of women in  Quality management  Human Resource management  Programming  Technical Writing  Low percentage of women in  IT operations  Database administration  Network administration  Percentage of women in Senior management low in comparison to western countries  Percentage of women in project management steadily rising IT - the Industry with one of the highest growth rate of women employees

22 Table 23 Average time dedicated to domestic and family duties and to employed work per week (data for 2005)1 Women Men Gender Difference Domestic and family duties Paid employment

23 Table 24 Non-active Population aged per sex: Reasons for not searching for employment Women Men Reasons of non searching of employment Waiting to take over a working post : : : : Suffering from a disease or incapability Other family/ personal duties Taking care of children or dependent adults : 8.6 : : They are students They are pensioners Believing that there are no jobs available : 0.8 Other reasons

24 WOMEN’S ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT HUMAN RIGHTS GENDER-RESPONSIVE GOVERNANCE The Greek Framework Plan for Women

25 Recommendations For women in administrative and technical positions: Provide business communications training Provide intensive English language training

26 Recommendations For women in support positions such as cleaners and tea servers: Conduct a relevant needs assessment

27 Recommendations For women who will be displaced in the civil service reform process: Provide opportunity for retraining as teachers Provide intensive English language training

28 The National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) , Operational Programme (OP) “Public Administration Reform”, is the central funding framework of these policies and activities The Programme is structured on three pillars. They entail, respectively: a. proposed legislative regulations to improve family law, reform and enhance legislation addressing violence and introduce new provisions aimed at substantive gender equality; b. GSGE specialised gender equality policies (interventions in selected areas of public policy and creation of policy making institutions, structures and bodies); and c. interventions by other Ministries and public agencies which foster gender equity via public policies (mainstreaming policie s).

29 Recommendations For women who will enter the civil service in the near- and medium-term future: Assist in GTZ research project on civil service employment for women

30 Working Towards equal opportunities for women in the civil service

31 Introduction Report Purpose Commitments to Gender Equality by Greek Government Methodology

32 Women in the Civil Service Statistics Current Environment Categories Civil Service Reform

33 OBJECTIVES Provide, greek government agencies, and development practitioners with a common set of analytical concepts and tools for integrating gender concerns into development programs and projects Help achieve gender equality in, and empower women through, projects and programs

34 Statistics number of civil servants gender-disaggregated data 180,000 to 325,000 total One estimate 38,000 women One estimate 60% of women teachers

35 Current Environment Lack of central coordination and tracking Lack of merit-based selection system Lack of post-training evaluation Lack of post-training information sharing Fossilized/discriminatory civil service infrastructure

36 Categories Women in senior- and mid-level managerial and policy-making positions Women in administrative and technical positions Women in support positions such as cleaners and tea servers Women who will be displaced in the civil service reform process Women who will enter the civil service in the near- and medium-term future

37 Civil Service Training No centralized coordination or tracking Attempt at general inventory by ministry and provincial administration Source – ministries, NGO’s and training providers

38 Recommendations General: Greek government should hold government officials publicly responsible for a commitment to gender equality Independent Administrative Reform & Civil Service Commission should form an equity unit Implement process immediately with gender component Implement gender-sensitive merit-based selection processes for training attendees. Ministries and donors participate in central training tracking

39 Recommendations For women in senior- and mid-level managerial and policy-making positions: Provide business communications training Provide training for effective access to women in the Parliament

40 Thank you and Welcome to Discussion…..


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