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TRANSPORT RESEARCH CENTER UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID COST 355 - WATCH "Changing behaviour towards a more sustainable transport system" 355 “Freight.

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Presentation on theme: "TRANSPORT RESEARCH CENTER UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID COST 355 - WATCH "Changing behaviour towards a more sustainable transport system" 355 “Freight."— Presentation transcript:

1 TRANSPORT RESEARCH CENTER UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID COST WATCH "Changing behaviour towards a more sustainable transport system" 355 “Freight road transport in Spain. Towards a higher energy and environment efficiency?” Pedro José Pérez-Martínez

2 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID TRANSPORT SECTOR IN SPAIN Supports economical development 5,3% GDP (3% road transport, rail excluded) Multypling effect over other sectors Employment: 4,3% potencial working popullation and 4,7% working people. (Road transport, rail excluded, represents 3,2% working people). BACKGROUND

3 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID Figure 1: Transport sector in Spain – 2002 Working people on road transport ( ) Source: D. G. de Programación Económica, Ministerio de Fomento, Informe Anual TRANSPORT EMPLOYEES

4 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID Figure 2a: Freight transport demand by mode in Spain – 2002 ( millions tonnes-kilometer) Source: D. G. de Programación Económica, Ministerio de Fomento, Informe Anual DEMAND BY MODE

5 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID Figure 2b: Freight transport demand by transport mode and GDP in Spain During period 1990 – 2000, growth of 61 % (5.1 % year -1 ) Source: Dirección General de Aviación Civil, Ente Público Puertos del Estado, Dirección General de Carreteras, Dirección General de Ferrocarriles (Ministerio de Fomento), RENFE, FEVE y Comunidades Autónomas. Instituto Nacional de Estadística DEMAND AND GDP

6 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID Figure 2c: Freight transport demand and GDP in Spain Source: D. G. de Programación Económica, Ministerio de Fomento, Informe Anual Instituto Nacional de Estadística DEMAND AND GDP INDICES

7 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID TRANSPORT MODE 1990 (36%)* 1995 (35,7%)* 2000 (35,8 %)* 2002 (35,9%)* Road771728,2 (79,8%) ,3 (76,3%) ,7 (69,1%) ,2 (68,7%) Rail12269,8 (1,3%) 11407,7 (1,1%) 12001,7 (0,8%) 12097,3 (0,7%) Air100393,5 (10,4%) ,3 (12,2%) ,3 (11,8%) (10,3%) Sea79637,4 (8,2%) ,4 (10,1%) ,5 (18,0%) ,7 (19,9%) Pipe1127,1 (0,1%) 1679,6 (0,2%) 3033,4 (0,2%) 5213,6 (0,3%) Metro1347,8 (0,1%) 1463 (0,1%) 1924,9 (0,1%) 2057 (0,1%) Total966503, , , ,8 Table 1: Energy consumption by transport mode (Total equivalent in TJ & %) * Contribution of transport sector to total energy consumption in Spain(%), 37,8% (2006), 38,9% (2012) Source: D.G. De Política Energética y Minas, CLH, S.A., REPSOL BUTANO S.A., RENFE, FEVE, REPSOL PETRÓLEO S.A., Generalidad de Cataluña, Metropolitano de Madrid, Generalidad de Valencia, Ferrocarriles del Gobierno Vasco, Metropolitano de Barcelona y Compañías Privadas de Ferrocarril. ENERGY

8 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID Figure 3: Final energy consumption of road transport broken down by vehicle category in Spain (2000) 14% Contribution of road freight transport to total energy consumption in Spain (%) Source: D. G. de Programación Económica, Ministerio de Fomento, Informe Anual ENERGY

9 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID OBJETIVES Benchmarking of freight transport efficiency, operational performance Results of a descriptive + key performance indicator survey – Encuesta Permanente Transporte Mercancías Carretera, EPTMC (PRFSS) Audit of the efficiency of vehicles over a-year Combine the effect of vehicle utilisation/fuel efficiency on CO 2 emissions (and on operating costs?)

10 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID PERMANENT ROAD FREIGHT SAMPLE SURVEY (PRFSS) Initiative of the PRFSS ( ) Random stratified sampling (800/week, vehicles/year) Key descriptive and performance indicators Data collection and analysis

11 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID Equations 1,2: Estimation of the sampling results - Random Stratified Sampling For each stratum h (h=1...16), stratification criteria: service, reach, capacity x hi : Value of X variable in i vehicle of h stratum  descriptive +key performance indicators. F h : Expansion coefficient for h stratum. n’ h : Number of sampling vehicles from h stratum N h : Total number of authorized vehicles from h stratum. (directory population). b (tit)h : Number of falls within h stratum, detected in the sampling. e (tit)h : Number of vehicles within h stratum that not correspond to the survey (fireman, forestry, construction trucks, snowplows, etc.) s: Number of weeks within the calculation period. Titular sampling size (800/week) (200/week reserve, vehicles/year) SAMPLING

12 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID Descriptive Indicators (DI)/ Measure of National Indices: i.e.: Operations, Vehicle-km, Kilometers, Tonnes, Tonne-km, Distribution of HDV, Load capacity Utilisation Indices (KPI1)/ Measure of Energy Intensity: i.e.: Empty running (%), Vehicle loading (%), Fuel efficiency (l/km) or (l/t- km), Fuel consumption (l), Emission efficiency (grs CO2/t-km) Productivity Indices (KPI2)/ Measure of production: i.e.: Vehicle time utilization, Transport content (km/t) Effectiveness Indices (KPI3)/ Measure of efficiency: i.e.: Deviations from schedule, Transport distance (logistical reach, km), Average payload (organization of transport-efficiency, t-km/vehicles-km) INDICATORS Table 1: Descriptive (DI) and key performance indicators (KPI)

13 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID *Equations 3, 4, 5: Transport content, distance and efficiency INDICATORS Some of the indicators are directly measured by the PRFSS and other are estimates*

14 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID Figure 4: Indicators of the PRFSS-Survey by trip mode (I) Source: Encuesta Permanente de Mercancías por Carretera, Ministerio de Fomento, Operations (thousands) Vehicle-Kms (thousand millions) Operations (thousands) 69.5 km v-kms (millions) 17.5 kilometers (billions)  ,3 litres diesel (millions)  5,7 toe (millions) DI/ Operations & Vehicle-kilometers (2003)

15 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID Figure 5: Indicators of the PRFSS-Survey by trip mode (II) Source: Encuesta Permanente de Mercancías por Carretera, Ministerio de Fomento, Tonnes (thousands) Tonne-km (millions) 1850 Tonnes (millions, payload) 104 Km (transport distance) Tonne-kms (millions) DI/ Tonnes & Tonne-kilometers (2003)

16 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID Figure 6: Freight road transport trends in Spain Source: Encuesta Permanente de Mercancías por Carretera, Ministerio de Fomento, Transport between municipalities and within municipalities is excluded (33%). DI/ Tonne-kilometers TRENDS

17 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID Figure 7: Transport within municipalities (in tonnes) Source: Encuesta Permanente de Mercancías por Carretera, Ministerio de Fomento, Transport by types of service and vehicleTransport by distance interval 613 Tonnes (millions), 5542 Tonne-kms (millions), 9 km DI/ Tonnes within municipalities (2003)

18 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID Figure 8: Transport between municipalities (in tonnes) Transport by types of service and vehicleTransport by distance interval Source: Encuesta Permanente de Mercancías por Carretera, Ministerio de Fomento, Tonnes (millions), Tonne-kms (millions), 112 km DI/ Tonnes between municipalities (2003)

19 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID Figure 9: International transport (in tonnes) Transport by types of service and vehicleTransport by distance interval Source: Encuesta Permanente de Mercancías por Carretera, Ministerio de Fomento, Tonnes (millions), Tonne-kms (millions), 1083 km DI/ Tonnes international (2003)

20 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID HEAVY Public service Private service TOTAL HDV LIGHT Public service Private service TOTAL LDV TOTAL Table 2: Freight road transport legal vehicles in Spain Figure 10: Distribution of HDV* in Spain *Rigid: Small rigid (2 axles) < 10 t, Medium rigid (2 axles) t, Large rigid (>2 axles) > 18t Tractor: 32 t articulated vehicles (4 axles), t articulated vehicles (>4 axles) DI/ Distribution (2003)

21 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID Figure 11: Load capacity of HDV in Spain Figure 12: Average percentage of operativity, time utilization Source: Encuesta Permanente de Mercancías por Carretera, Ministerio de Fomento, % trailer time*,  79 % *running on the road, loading/unloading, Awaiting unloading/uploading, pre-load DI/ Load capacityKPI2/ Operativity

22 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID Source: Encuesta Permanente de Mercancías por Carretera, Ministerio de Fomento, Figure 10: Key performance indicators regarding operations of empty running (average level of efficiency at sectoral level, utilization indices) Empty / 100 loaded operations Empty / 100 loaded kms Empty running  47 % Empty running  26 % Potential for improving the efficiency of delivery operations Utilisation Indices (KPI1)/ Empty Running (2003)

23 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID Source: Encuesta Permanente de Mercancías por Carretera, Ministerio de Fomento, Figure 11: Load factors in road freight transport for weight categories of Spanish lorries in 2003 (defined as the percentage utilization of the capacity by weight). The figure of the left is higher as empty running was excluded. Utilization of available tonne-kms  80 % Utilization of available tonne-kms  40 % The fact that some companies achieve higher load factors than others suggests that can be improved Utilisation Indices (KPI1)/ Load Factors (2003)

24 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID Table 3a: Road freight transport, HDV. Performance data ( ) DI: Descriptive Indicators, * Indirectly calculated from running kilometers using following relations: RESULTS - Performance data

25 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID _ Not significant differences, KPI1: Utilisation Indices, KPI2: Productivity Indices, KPI3: Effectiveness Indices, * Indirectly calculated from running kilometers and t-k, Indirectly calculated from equations *3, 4, 5 RESULTS - Performance data Table 3b: Road freight transport, HDV. Performance data ( )

26 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID Table 4: Road freight transport, HDV indicators by service and vehicle type (2003) Source: Encuesta Permanente de Mercancías por Carretera, Ministerio de Fomento, RESULTS - by service and vehicle type

27 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID Figure 12: Road freight transport, HDV indicators by service and vehicle type (2003) Source: Encuesta Permanente de Mercancías por Carretera, Ministerio de Fomento, *Rigid: Small rigid (2 axles) < 10 t, Medium rigid (2 axles) t, Large rigid (>2 axles) > 18t Tractor: 32 t articulated vehicles (4 axles), t articulated vehicles (>4 axles) RESULTS by service and vehicle type

28 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID Table 5: Road freight transport, HDV indicators by logistical reach (2003) RESULTS by logistical reach

29 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID CONCLUSIONS Benchmarking of transport description, utilisation, productivity and efficiency in road freight in Spain vs set of indicators was done using PRFSS Benchmarking reveals wide variation in absolute values during studied period Benchmarking indicates not a wide variation in vehicle utilisation, productivity and energy intensity although not distinction in the nature of the product was done Limitation of the survey, lack of key performance indicators that directly measures operating performance (KPI2-KP3) Future surveys should examine more KPIs and further relationship between transport and logistical variables (also interraltionship between KPIs) Expand sample size permiting greater segmentation, more number of homogeneous strata, improving the accuracy

30 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIÓN DEL TRANSPORTE - ETSI CAMINOS, CANALES Y PUERTOS UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE MADRID THANKS ! Pedro José Pérez-Martínez Transport Research Center – TRANSyT, UPM Homepage:


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