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Richard E. Caplan The University of Akron 7. Movies Christopher Burnett California State, Long Beach.

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Presentation on theme: "Richard E. Caplan The University of Akron 7. Movies Christopher Burnett California State, Long Beach."— Presentation transcript:

1 Richard E. Caplan The University of Akron 7. Movies Christopher Burnett California State, Long Beach

2 Motion on Film Sequential photography –Marey & Muybridge, 1877 Kinetoscope –Thomas Edison, 1888 –William K.L. Dickson Perforated film Sprockets –Peepshow viewer –Looped on rollers First kinetoscope parlor –April 14, 1894 in New York City Muybridge Sequential Photography Eadward Muybridge/CORBIS

3 Cinematographe Cinematographe 1895 –Auguste and Louis Lumière –Camera and projector –Portable, hand cranked –Projected on a large screen First motion picture show –Grand Café in Paris December 28, 1895 –10 short films –“Lunch Hour at the Lumière Factory”

4 Edison and Others Thomas Arnat’s Vitascope Edison’s premiere –April 23, 1896 –Motion Picture Patents Co., 1908 George Méliès –A Trip to the Moon, 1902 –First “special effects” feature –Trick photography Edwin S. Porter –Worked for Edison –The Great Train Robbery, 1903 –12 scenes, dissolves, action

5 Studio and Spectacle Biograph, Carl Laemmle –First film studios –Florence Lawrence First movie star Studio System –Salaried stars and production staff under exclusive contract The Birth of a Nation, 1915 –First feature-length film, big budget spectacular –D.W. Griffith Noble and George Johnson,1916 –Narrative movies, or race films, for African-American audience

6 Movies Become Big Business The move to Hollywood –From New York –Harry Chandler, LA Times owner, sold the land Block Booking –Theaters signing up to show dozens of films as a “package” instead of single movies United Artists, 1919 –Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks and D.W. Griffith –Independent studio run by the stars themselves Fairbanks, Pickford, Chaplin and Griffith AP/Wide World Photos

7 Early Self Regulation Hollywood scandals –Roscoe “Fatty” Arbuckle case 1921 –Desmond Taylor Murder 1922 Catholic Legion of Decency boycott Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association (MPPDA) –Self-regulatory –Will Hays “Hays Office” 1922 –Oversaw movie content

8 MPPDA 1930 Production Code May not lower the moral standard of viewers Proper standards of life Respect for law Murder should not inspire imitation No excessive kissing, embracing No shade of obscenity Modest dancing costumes Film displays seal of approval

9 Arrival of the “Talkies” The Vitaphone Preludes, 1926 –Seven shorts with sound –Warner Bro.s and Western Electric The Jazz Singer, 1927 –Al Jolson –First feature-length “talkie” –Synchronized sound recording By 1933, talkies dominate completely STR/AFP/Getty Images Scene from The Jazz Singer

10 Rise of the Movie Moguls 1930s Big Five –Warner Brothers –Metro-Goldwin-Mayer –Paramount –RKO –20th Century Fox 2/3 of ticket sales Vertically integrated –Owned production and distribution –Production “stables” stars, directors, writers and staff

11 Disney and Depression Steamboat Willie 1928 –Walt Disney –Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, 1937 First full-length animated feature The Depression –Bingo nights –Dish nights –Double features Labor unions –Screen Actors GuildScreen Actors Guild 1937 –Screen Writer’s GuildScreen Writer’s Guild –Director’s GuildDirector’s Guild

12 The Golden Age of Movies MGM reigns supreme –Blockbusters –The Wizard of Oz - 1939 Musical –Gone with the Wind – 1939 Magnificent use of color Citizen Kane - 1941 –Orson Welles –Voted the greatest film of all time Wizard of Oz The Kobal Collection

13 Congress and the Courts The House Un-American Activities Committee –The Cold War –Suspected communists –The Hollywood Ten, 1947 –Blacklisting U.S v. Paramount Pictures, 1948 –Limit block booking to five –Stop blind booking –Stop requiring short film rentals –Stop buying theaters The Kobal Collection

14 Movies v. Television 1950s Television boom –4000 theaters closed Wide-Screen and 3-D Movies –Cinemascope and stereophonic sound Changes in censorship –1952, 1st Amendment protection extended to film –Sex and violence added Spectaculars –The Sound of Music –Blockbuster hunt

15 Movie Ratings MPAA - Motion Pictures Association of America Movie Ratings, 1966MPAA –Designed to prevent censorship G - All ages PG - Parental guidance suggested (originally called M) PG 13 - Parents strongly cautioned to give guidance to children under 13 (added later) R - Restricted; those under 17 must be accompanied by parent or guardian NC-17 - No one under 17 admitted (originally X)

16 Movie Business Major studios –Disney, Viacom/Paramount, Sony Pictures Entertainment, etc. Less than 20 movies a year for each studio Independent producers –Distributed by studios –Sundance and other festivals Most fragmented industry in mass media Peter Morgan/Reuters/Corbis Geffen, Katzenberg and Spielberg of Dreamworks, now part of Viacom

17 Making Money Drop in ticket sales –1946 was the biggest year for movie attendance $100 million avg. film cost 2 of 10 make money Ancillary rights –Videos and DVDs –Network and Pay TV –Airline, base, campus rights –Soundtrack albums –Books, etc. ©Business Wire/Getty Images

18 Working in the Movies Screenwriters –Independent writers Producers –Funding and logistics Directors Actors Production –The movie creators Marketing –Publicity and advertising Administration Film Career Link Ray Stubblebine/Reuters/Corbis

19 Digital Technology & Movies Production –Smaller cameras –Computer effects –Digitized color Distribution –Satellite distribution –Digital projectors –Internet distribution? Future of Exhibition –Alternative tech experiences –“motion simulation” –“Real D” Michael Connors/

20 Making Money in the Movies Illustration 7.1

21 Globalization of Film Global ownership –Sony Pictures Entertainment Owned by Sony –Twentieth Century-Fox Rupert Murdoch’s News Corp. Fox News, Fox Network, British Sky Broadcasting Film is a major U.S. Export –One-third profits from overseas More consolidation? Michael Connors/

22 Critical Discussion 1.Should today’s film industry have a voluntary code like the one in the ‘30s-’50s? 2.How might consolidated ownership of film, TV and other media outlets affect the film industry in particular? AP/Wide World Photos

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