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History of Cinema and the Ratings System Alisha Fine.

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Presentation on theme: "History of Cinema and the Ratings System Alisha Fine."— Presentation transcript:

1 History of Cinema and the Ratings System Alisha Fine

2 The Birth of Film Thomas Edisons Kinetoscope first went public at Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences on May 9, Thomas Edisons Kinetoscope first went public at Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences on May 9, The film was only a few minutes long and only one person could view it at at time. The film was only a few minutes long and only one person could view it at at time. Thomas Edisons Kinetoscope first went public at Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences on May 9, Thomas Edisons Kinetoscope first went public at Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences on May 9, The film was only a few minutes long and only one person could view it at at time. The film was only a few minutes long and only one person could view it at at time.

3 Emergence of the Nickelodeon The Invention of the Vitascope, the first film projector, allowed for a large audience to view a film at the same time. The Invention of the Vitascope, the first film projector, allowed for a large audience to view a film at the same time. Along with the Vitascope came Nickelodeons. Along with the Vitascope came Nickelodeons. The first Nickelodeon opened in a store front in Pittsburgh, PA in June of 1905 The first Nickelodeon opened in a store front in Pittsburgh, PA in June of 1905 Admission to a Nickelodeon was only a nickel, hence the name Nickelodeon and the film lasted min. Admission to a Nickelodeon was only a nickel, hence the name Nickelodeon and the film lasted min. The Invention of the Vitascope, the first film projector, allowed for a large audience to view a film at the same time. The Invention of the Vitascope, the first film projector, allowed for a large audience to view a film at the same time. Along with the Vitascope came Nickelodeons. Along with the Vitascope came Nickelodeons. The first Nickelodeon opened in a store front in Pittsburgh, PA in June of 1905 The first Nickelodeon opened in a store front in Pittsburgh, PA in June of 1905 Admission to a Nickelodeon was only a nickel, hence the name Nickelodeon and the film lasted min. Admission to a Nickelodeon was only a nickel, hence the name Nickelodeon and the film lasted min.

4 Nickelodeon Controversy Working class, immigrants were attracted to the cheap form of entertainment. Working class, immigrants were attracted to the cheap form of entertainment. December of 1908 the Mayor of New York City had ordered that all nickel theaters be closed, arguing that they posed a threat to the citys physical and moral well being. December of 1908 the Mayor of New York City had ordered that all nickel theaters be closed, arguing that they posed a threat to the citys physical and moral well being. Working class, immigrants were attracted to the cheap form of entertainment. Working class, immigrants were attracted to the cheap form of entertainment. December of 1908 the Mayor of New York City had ordered that all nickel theaters be closed, arguing that they posed a threat to the citys physical and moral well being. December of 1908 the Mayor of New York City had ordered that all nickel theaters be closed, arguing that they posed a threat to the citys physical and moral well being.

5 D.W. Griffith Keeps Film Alive The middle class finally gave films the recognition they deserved as an art form after director D.W. Griffiths historical epics The Birth of a Nation (1915) and Intolerance (1916). The middle class finally gave films the recognition they deserved as an art form after director D.W. Griffiths historical epics The Birth of a Nation (1915) and Intolerance (1916). This secured film in its place in the emerging culture of the 20th century. This secured film in its place in the emerging culture of the 20th century. Birth of a Nation was the first film to inspire widespread racial controversy. Birth of a Nation was the first film to inspire widespread racial controversy. The middle class finally gave films the recognition they deserved as an art form after director D.W. Griffiths historical epics The Birth of a Nation (1915) and Intolerance (1916). The middle class finally gave films the recognition they deserved as an art form after director D.W. Griffiths historical epics The Birth of a Nation (1915) and Intolerance (1916). This secured film in its place in the emerging culture of the 20th century. This secured film in its place in the emerging culture of the 20th century. Birth of a Nation was the first film to inspire widespread racial controversy. Birth of a Nation was the first film to inspire widespread racial controversy.

6 Hollywood By the 1920s the US reaches its era of greatest- ever output with an average of 800 feature films annually. By the 1920s the US reaches its era of greatest- ever output with an average of 800 feature films annually. This explosion was directly correlated with the growth of the studio system. This explosion was directly correlated with the growth of the studio system. The Big Eight - The Big Eight - Universal Pictures Universal Pictures Fox Film Corp (later 20th Century Fox) Fox Film Corp (later 20th Century Fox) Columbia Pictures Columbia Pictures Warner Brothers Warner Brothers Paramount Paramount MGM MGM RKO RKO United Artists United Artists By the 1920s the US reaches its era of greatest- ever output with an average of 800 feature films annually. By the 1920s the US reaches its era of greatest- ever output with an average of 800 feature films annually. This explosion was directly correlated with the growth of the studio system. This explosion was directly correlated with the growth of the studio system. The Big Eight - The Big Eight - Universal Pictures Universal Pictures Fox Film Corp (later 20th Century Fox) Fox Film Corp (later 20th Century Fox) Columbia Pictures Columbia Pictures Warner Brothers Warner Brothers Paramount Paramount MGM MGM RKO RKO United Artists United Artists

7 Studio System Today

8 Introduction of the Rating System With the advent of talking pictures it was felt that a formal code on censorship should be written. With the advent of talking pictures it was felt that a formal code on censorship should be written. The Production Code, a set of Industry guidelines governing the production of American motion pictures, was adopted March 31, 1930 by the Motion Pictures Producers and Distributors Association (MPPDA) which later became the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA). The Production Code, a set of Industry guidelines governing the production of American motion pictures, was adopted March 31, 1930 by the Motion Pictures Producers and Distributors Association (MPPDA) which later became the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA). For 4 years the Code went without any form of enforcement until the Production Code Administration was formed. For 4 years the Code went without any form of enforcement until the Production Code Administration was formed. With the advent of talking pictures it was felt that a formal code on censorship should be written. With the advent of talking pictures it was felt that a formal code on censorship should be written. The Production Code, a set of Industry guidelines governing the production of American motion pictures, was adopted March 31, 1930 by the Motion Pictures Producers and Distributors Association (MPPDA) which later became the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA). The Production Code, a set of Industry guidelines governing the production of American motion pictures, was adopted March 31, 1930 by the Motion Pictures Producers and Distributors Association (MPPDA) which later became the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA). For 4 years the Code went without any form of enforcement until the Production Code Administration was formed. For 4 years the Code went without any form of enforcement until the Production Code Administration was formed. This required filmmakers to submit their films for approval before their release. In order to receive approval, the movie had to be free of excessive or lustful kissing, and references to sex perversion and any depiction of childbirth, among other things. Enforcement of the Production Code became difficult so in the MPAA abandoned it entirely in the mid-1960s.

9 MPAA The MPAA began working on a ratings system so that there were virtually no restrictions on what could be in a film. The MPAA began working on a ratings system so that there were virtually no restrictions on what could be in a film. The MPAA film rating system went into effect November 1, 1968 with 4 ratings: G, M, R, and X. The MPAA film rating system went into effect November 1, 1968 with 4 ratings: G, M, R, and X. M was later changed to PG and a PG-13 rating was added to create a tier between PG and R. M was later changed to PG and a PG-13 rating was added to create a tier between PG and R. The X rating was changed to NC-17 to distinguish it from porn. The X rating was changed to NC-17 to distinguish it from porn. The MPAA began working on a ratings system so that there were virtually no restrictions on what could be in a film. The MPAA began working on a ratings system so that there were virtually no restrictions on what could be in a film. The MPAA film rating system went into effect November 1, 1968 with 4 ratings: G, M, R, and X. The MPAA film rating system went into effect November 1, 1968 with 4 ratings: G, M, R, and X. M was later changed to PG and a PG-13 rating was added to create a tier between PG and R. M was later changed to PG and a PG-13 rating was added to create a tier between PG and R. The X rating was changed to NC-17 to distinguish it from porn. The X rating was changed to NC-17 to distinguish it from porn.

10 This Film Is Not Yet Rated Are Hollywood movies and independent films rated equally for comparable content? Are Hollywood movies and independent films rated equally for comparable content? Does it make sense that extreme violence is given an R rating while sexuality is banished to the cutting room floor? Does it make sense that extreme violence is given an R rating while sexuality is banished to the cutting room floor? Why do Hollywood studios receive detailed directions as to how to change an NC-17 film into an R, while independent films producers are left guessing? Why do Hollywood studios receive detailed directions as to how to change an NC-17 film into an R, while independent films producers are left guessing? Does leaving the raters and the rating process secret leave the MPAA unaccountable for its decisions? Does leaving the raters and the rating process secret leave the MPAA unaccountable for its decisions? Are Hollywood movies and independent films rated equally for comparable content? Are Hollywood movies and independent films rated equally for comparable content? Does it make sense that extreme violence is given an R rating while sexuality is banished to the cutting room floor? Does it make sense that extreme violence is given an R rating while sexuality is banished to the cutting room floor? Why do Hollywood studios receive detailed directions as to how to change an NC-17 film into an R, while independent films producers are left guessing? Why do Hollywood studios receive detailed directions as to how to change an NC-17 film into an R, while independent films producers are left guessing? Does leaving the raters and the rating process secret leave the MPAA unaccountable for its decisions? Does leaving the raters and the rating process secret leave the MPAA unaccountable for its decisions?

11 Sources /History_of_Motion_Pictures.html 568/History_of_Motion_Pictures.html 568/History_of_Motion_Pictures.html 568/History_of_Motion_Pictures.html _system _system _system _system /History_of_Motion_Pictures.html 568/History_of_Motion_Pictures.html 568/History_of_Motion_Pictures.html 568/History_of_Motion_Pictures.html _system _system _system _system


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