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Richard E. Caplan The University of Akron Movies Mrs. Bartel Film zimbio.com cbsnews.com.

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Presentation on theme: "Richard E. Caplan The University of Akron Movies Mrs. Bartel Film zimbio.com cbsnews.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 Richard E. Caplan The University of Akron Movies Mrs. Bartel Film zimbio.com cbsnews.com

2 Motion on Film Sequential photography –Marey & Muybridge, 1877 Kinetoscope –Thomas Edison, 1888 –William K.L. Dickson Perforated film Sprockets –Peepshow viewer –Looped on rollers First kinetoscope parlor –April 14, 1894 in New York City –Edison's Kinetoscope, open. Film was threaded on rollers as a continuous ribbon. Muybridge Sequential Photography Eadward Muybridge/CORBIS

3 Cinematographe Cinematographe 1895 –Auguste and Louis Lumière –Camera and projector –Portable, hand cranked –Projected on a large screen First motion picture show –Grand Café in Paris December 28, 1895 –10 short films –“Lunch Hour at the Lumière Factory” Film set in Paris, 1900 Library of Congress

4 Edison and Others Thomas Arnat’s Vitascope Edison’s premiere –April 23, 1896 George Méliès –A Trip to the Moon, 1902A Trip to the Moon –First “special effects” feature –Trick photography Edwin S. Porter –Worked for EdisonWorkedEdison –The Great Train Robbery, 1903The Great Train Robbery –12 scenes, dissolves, action12 scenes Library of Congress

5 Studio and Spectacle Biograph, Carl Laemmle –First film studios –Florence Lawrence First movie star Studio System –Salaried stars and production staff under exclusive contract The Birth of a Nation, 1915The Birth of a Nation –First feature-length film –Controversial big-budget spectacular –D.W. Griffith D. W. Griffith Chicago Historical Society

6 Movies Become Big Business The move to Hollywood –From New York –Harry Chandler, LA Times owner, sold the land Block Booking –Theaters signing up to show dozens of films as a “package” instead of single movies United Artists, 1919United Artists –Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks and D.W. GriffithCharlie Chaplin –Independent studio run by the stars themselves Fairbanks, Pickford and Chaplin Chicago Historical Society

7 Early Self Regulation Hollywood scandals –Roscoe “Fatty” Arbuckle case 1921 –Desmond Taylor Murder 1922 Catholic Legion of Decency boycott Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association (MPPDA) –Self-regulatory –Will Hays “Hays Office” 1922 –Oversaw movie content Roscoe “Fatty” Arbuckle Chicago Historical Society

8 MPPDA 1930 Production Code May not lower the moral standard of viewers Proper standards of life Respect for law Murder should not inspire imitation No excessive kissing, embracing No shade of obscenity Modest dancing costumes Film displays seal of approval Will Hays Chicago Historical Society

9 Arrival of the “Talkies” The Vitaphone Preludes, 1926 –Seven shorts with sound –Warner Bros. and Western Electric The Jazz Singer, 1927The Jazz Singer –Al Jolson –First feature-length “talkie” –Synchronized sound recording By 1933, talkies dominate completely Paul Robeson, Early African-American Actor Bettmann/CORBIS

10 Rise of the Movie Moguls 1930s Big Five –Warner Brothers –Metro-Goldwin-Mayer –Paramount –RKO –20th Century Fox 2/3 of ticket sales Vertically integrated –Owned production and distribution –Production “stables” stars, directors, writers and staff RKO Theater Stand, 1930 Library of Congress/Gotscho-Schleisner Collection

11 Disney and Depression Steamboat Willie 1928Steamboat Willie 1928 –Walt Disney –Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, 1937 First full-length animated feature The Depression –Bingo nights –Dish nights –Double features Labor unions –Screen Actors Guild 1937 –Screen Writer’s Guild –Director’s Guild Chicago Movie Theater, ‘40s Library of Congress

12 The Golden Age of Movies MGM reigns supreme –Blockbusters –The Wizard of Oz The Wizard of Oz Musical –Gone with the Wind – 1939Gone with the Wind Magnificent use of color Citizen Kane Citizen Kane –Orson Welles –We will watch this film later to understand its impact! Gone with the Wind Reelclassics.com

13 Congress and the Courts The House Un-American Activities Committee –The Cold War –Suspected communists –The Hollywood Ten, 1947The Hollywood Ten –Blacklisting U.S v. Paramount Pictures, 1948 –Limit block booking to five –Stop blind booking –Stop requiring short film rentals –Stop buying theaters The “Hollywood Ten” University of Southern California/Fisher Collection

14 Movies vs. Television 1950s Television boom 4000 theaters closed Wide-Screen and 3-D Movies –Cinemascope and stereophonic sound Changes in Censorship –1952, 1st Amendment protection extended to film –Sex and violence added Spectaculars –The Sound of Music –Blockbuster hunt Pam Roth/sstock.xchnge

15 Movie Ratings MPAA - Motion Pictures Association of America Movie Ratings, 1966MPAA –Designed to prevent censorship G - All ages PG - Parental guidance suggested (originally called M) PG 13 - Parents strongly cautioned to give guidance to children under 13 (added later) R - Restricted; those under 17 must be accompanied by parent or guardian NC-17 - No one under 17 admitted (originally X) Roque Corona/stock.xchnge

16 Movie Business Seven major studios –Disney, Viacom/Paramount, Vivendi, Dream Works, 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros., and Sony Pictures About 20 movies a year each Independent producers –Distributed by studios –Sundance and other festivals Most fragmented industry in mass media

17 Who goes to the movies? Illustration 7.1

18 Declining male audience Illustration 7.1

19 Making Money Drop in ticket sales –1946 was the biggest year for movie attendance Ancillary rights –Videos and DVDs –Network and Pay TV –Airline, base, campus rights –Soundtrack albums –Books, etc. $100 million avg. film cost 2 of 10 make money Getty Images

20 How the movies make money Illustration 7.2

21 Making Money in the Movies Illustration 7.2

22 Working in the Movies Screenwriters –Independent writers Producers –Funding and logistics Actors Production –The movie creators Marketing –Publicity and advertising Administration –Accounting, etc. Film Career Link Vince Bucci/Getty Images

23 Technology and the Future Production –Smaller cameras –Computer technology –Digitalization Distribution –Satellite distribution –Digital projectors –Internet distribution? Exhibition –Alternative tech experiences –“motion simulation” –Holographic concerts Pam Roth/stock.xchnge

24 Globalization of Film Global ownership –Columbia Pictures Purchased by Sony –Twentieth Century-Fox Rupert Murdoch’s News Corp. Fox News, Fox Network, British Sky Broadcasting –Universal Sold to Matsushita of Japan 1990 Resold to Seagram of Canada 1997 Then sold to Vivendi a French company Sold to General Electric/NBC 2003 One-third profits from overseas More consolidation? The Dreamworks Team Kim Kulish/CORBIS

25 Hollywood Who’s Who Illustration 7.3

26 Building Blocks Frame-individual picture Shot Basic unit of the film, any continuous piece of unedited film, second average. Scene-a group of interrelated shots taking place in the same location Sequence- a group of interrelated scenes that form a natural unit in the story

27 Camera Shot Distance: Long shot (LS) (ELS)-beginning Medium shot (MS) Close-up (CU) (ECU)-emotion


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