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1 EPA NAREL U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air and Radiation National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory National Radiological.

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Presentation on theme: "1 EPA NAREL U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air and Radiation National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory National Radiological."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 EPA NAREL U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air and Radiation National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory National Radiological Emergency Preparedness Conference Harrisburg, Pennsylvania April 12, 2005 Ronald Fraass, Director NAREL 334 270-3401 RadNet: The Transition from ERAMS Static Data to Near Real Time Data

2 2 EPA NAREL EPA’s Disclaimer Disclaimer of Endorsement: Reference herein to any specific commercial products, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes.

3 3 EPA NAREL ERAMS Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System Nationwide, continuously operating environmental radiation monitoring network Utilizes voluntary sample collectors Operates in routine and emergency modes: –Provides baseline data continuously –Sampling frequency can be increased to respond to an emergency

4 4 EPA NAREL ERAMS History 1950’s – 60’s Radiation Fallout Monitored by: –Atomic Energy Commission –US Public Health Service –Department of Health, Education and Welfare 1970 Reorganization Plan #3 –Created EPA –Provided EPA with Authority and Responsibility for Radiation Protection 1973 ERAMS –Formed by Combining Existing Radiation Monitoring Networks

5 5 EPA NAREL Scope of Sampling MediaStationsSampling Frequency Key Analyses Air58Twice Weekly Gross Beta, Pu, U (Composites) Precipitation38Per EventGross Beta, Gamma, H-3 Drinking Water 75QuarterlyGross Alpha/Beta, Gamma (Composites), H-3, I-131 (Once per year per site) Milk42QuarterlyGamma, Sr-90 (Select Sites)

6 6 EPA NAREL Access to ERAMS Data for general information for a specific query of the data Much of the recent data through 2004 Can look at most media and some specific isotopes if measured Chernobyl very noticeable (Apr 86)

7 7 EPA NAREL Gross Beta Data from Olympia Washington

8 8 EPA NAREL The RadNet Mission is: To continuously monitor for ambient levels of radiation in the environment, Provide high quality data to modelers and decision makers for use in developing and implementing appropriate protective actions; and To provide baseline data during routine conditions. Fixed Monitors support the mission by providing national coverage. The Deployables support the mission by improving system coverage around an incident.

9 9 EPA NAREL RadNet Provides: Baseline for comparison in the event of an emergency Data on plume size and direction, degree and extent of contamination Basis of determining ongoing health and safety guidelines

10 10 EPA NAREL RadNet What the system is intended to do: –Provide data quickly in the event of a radiological incident to: Decision makers for use concerning potential protective actions Dispersion modelers to assist in predicting/refining source term and dispersion characteristics. Nuclear/rad health experts for further assessment of national impact. –Provide gamma spectrometric data in near real-time to a central repository from numerous locations across the nation to: Determine large scale national impact of a radiological incident. Provide better and timely data to modelers for long distance transport estimates. Provide exposure data for large areas of population for protective action recommendations, follow-up monitoring and assessment, and population dose reconstruction. Develop baseline for trend analysis and abnormality identification.

11 11 EPA NAREL RadNet What the system is not intended to do. –Monitor nuclear facilities –Provide an early warning system for nuclear accidents –Provide a means to monitor in the immediate locality of the incident – this is addressed by other assets.

12 12 EPA NAREL Four Components to a Response Radiological Emergency Response Team Fixed National Monitoring System Stations Deployable National Monitoring System Stations Fixed Laboratory Facility

13 13 EPA NAREL Radiological Emergency Response Team

14 14 EPA NAREL Fixed National Monitoring System

15 15 EPA NAREL Deployable National Monitoring System

16 16 EPA NAREL Fixed Laboratory

17 17 EPA NAREL System Design What does the system need to have/do to provide what decision makers need? –Radionuclide(s) present Ability to distinguish nuclides (gamma spectrometry) –Concentrations Ability to accurately compute concentrations of nuclides –Timeliness of data Near real-time data acquisition No operator action required Ability to report data from remote locations to a central processing location –Potential movement of contamination More detectors mean more data points for model refinement

18 18 EPA NAREL Prototyping Project Goal Evaluate ability of current state of art gamma spectrometry systems to reduce response time for detecting very small concentrations of radioactive material affecting large populations: Concentration equivalent to PAG if inhaled continuously for 100 hours Reduce detection time from 3 days to 1 hour Reduce quantitative measurement and protective action recommendation time from 5 days to 6 hours

19 19 EPA NAREL Enhance Existing Monitoring Network Existing high-volume air samplers  Nominal 1 cubic meter/minute air flow  4” diameter non-moving filter  Filter change/field screening count twice weekly, mailed to fixed lab  Typical 1 fCi/cubic meter sensitivity Add telemetry and real-time gamma spectrometry Add locations to improve coverage

20 20 EPA NAREL Quantitative isotopic measurements at required sensitivity Available commercial products – no R&D Small size – must fit in available space Able to operate continuously at remote locations, with minimal attention by diverse mix of operators  Rugged – weather enclosure, but no heating or cooling; vibration from sampler  Automatic re-start after power interruption  Stable calibration Functional Requirements

21 21 EPA NAREL General Specifications Fully integrated monitoring system –One enclosure/power supply for all components –Flow regulated hi-volume air sampler –Gamma energy spectrometry & gross beta –Data telemetry in near-real-time by multiple redundant methods –Attached retractable mast for antennas and optional wind speed/direction sensors Onsite installation and operator training by factory service representative Remote calibration by telemetry

22 22 EPA NAREL Gamma energy range 50 – 2000 KeV Gross beta Reject alphas below 8 MeV Programmable acquisition intervals Data out: –Counts/acquisition interval for 10 γ ROIs, β –Full gamma energy spectrum stored locally Radiation Detection

23 23 EPA NAREL Collect air sample continuously Acquire γ spectrum, β counts for 1 hour Transmit γ ROI and β counts to NAREL, store spectrum locally Computer at NAREL assesses incoming data for rate of change and upper limit, notifies staff on “alarm” –Upload full spectrum, perform quantitative analysis at NAREL Filter changed and mailed to NAREL 2/week as currently done Anticipated Operating Mode

24 24 EPA NAREL Proof of Concept Fixed Monitor

25 25 EPA NAREL Proof of Concept

26 26 EPA NAREL RadNet Coverage Goals Near-real-time Monitoring Approximately 70% population coverage (about 180 cities/sites) Approximately 100% geographic coverage

27 27 EPA NAREL Siting Considerations Population Coverage Current ERAMS Station Locations and Volunteers Geographic Coverage

28 28 EPA NAREL Population Coverage –Provides monitoring for as many citizens as possible. –Provides more comprehensive health impact determination. –Greater population coverage gives potential for easier buy-in from decision makers and citizens. –Recommended in SAB Advisories.

29 29 EPA NAREL Current ERAMS Locations for Some RadNet Monitors –Already have operators, depending upon the method we ultimately choose to obtain operators. –Baseline data are available for each station. –Stations may not be in densely populated areas.

30 30 EPA NAREL Geographic Coverage –Will provide better geographical coverage of the United States. –Fills in spatial gaps that will exist, providing modelers with better data for transport over non- populated regions, which may assist in predictions and protective action recommendations for larger cities downwind. –Added Stations will not be in major cities.




34 34 EPA NAREL What is a Deployable? A Deployable is a unit similar to a fixed RadNet monitor, in that it measures ambient environmental gamma radiation levels in near real-time, and also collects airborne radioactivity with high and low-volume air samplers. The deployables are to be stored in a state of readiness at the Montgomery, Alabama and Las Vegas, Nevada laboratories and will be deployed to the scene of a radiological incident or in case of an imminent threat.


36 36 EPA NAREL Gamma Exposure Instrument Genitron Gamma Tracer with two compensated GM detectors Data is sent to the data logger for satellite transmission Secured to station by wire mesh housing Positioned one meter off ground

37 37 EPA NAREL Who are the operators? Depending on urgency and the funding source, options include EPA personnel, contractors, or personnel chosen by the customer (state or local government, for instance). Qualifications: Available within 12 hours of notification Not otherwise committed during radiological emergency Willing to provide work, cell, and home contact information Able to lift 50 pounds several times Able to travel for up to two weeks Willing to work overtime Minimal technical ability – palm computer, GPS unit, simple electronic tasks Current driver’s license

38 38 EPA NAREL Data sharing Recipients of the data include other EPA programs, state or local governments, DHS, DOE’s FRMAC, the new IMAAC, and potentially, the public. During normal operations, data is not released to the ‘customer’ until verification, validation, and review is completed. Emergency operations warrant expediting the review process, in case the preliminary data can be used by decision makers to take protective actions.

39 39 EPA NAREL Potential RadNet Partnerships Other EPA Offices –Regionally and Nationally Interagency Monitoring and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC) National Response Team DHS, DOE, NRC, FEMA, DOD YOU

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