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ANNOUNCEMENTS Dr. Tim McGrew Historicity of the Gospels Nov 11 th Leadership Positions Available MSC Tabling Positions Available.

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Presentation on theme: "ANNOUNCEMENTS Dr. Tim McGrew Historicity of the Gospels Nov 11 th Leadership Positions Available MSC Tabling Positions Available."— Presentation transcript:

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2 ANNOUNCEMENTS Dr. Tim McGrew Historicity of the Gospels Nov 11 th Leadership Positions Available MSC Tabling Positions Available

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4 CONNECT WITH US ~facebook.com/RatioChristiTAMU ~facebook.com/RatioChristiTAMU ~http://RC.tamu.edu ~http://RC.tamu.edu Visit Us OnlineVisit Us Online

5 THE MINIMAL FACTS ARGUMENT Ratio Christi Texas A&M

6 BACKGROUND Purpose Argument from historical facts in favor of the resurrection of Jesus Consensus of New Testament scholarsConsensus of New Testament scholars Abductive reasoning or “argument to the best explanation” Importance Capstone to a cumulative case for ChristianityCapstone to a cumulative case for Christianity Formulated by Dr. Gary HabermasFormulated by Dr. Gary Habermas

7 FACT #1 Jesus died by Roman crucifixion

8 CRUCIFIXION - SUPPORT 1.Least contested fact1.Least contested fact 2.Intra-Biblical support2.Intra-Biblical support All Gospels + Acts All Gospels + Acts Pauline Epistles Pauline Epistles 3.Extra-Biblical support3.Extra-Biblical support Josephus – “…when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men among us, had condemned him to the cross…” Josephus – “…when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men among us, had condemned him to the cross…” Tacitus Tacitus Talmud, Sanhedrin 43a Talmud, Sanhedrin 43a

9 FACT #2 On the Sunday following Jesus’s burial by Joseph of Arimethia, his tomb was found empty by a group of his women followers

10 EMPTY TOMB - SUPPORT 1.Pauline formulation strongly implies empty tomb1.Pauline formulation strongly implies empty tomb 2.Empty tomb is included in pre-Markan source2.Empty tomb is included in pre-Markan source 3.Markan narrative is simple (not apologetic nor embellished)3.Markan narrative is simple (not apologetic nor embellished) 4.Criterion of embarrassment supports women discoverers4.Criterion of embarrassment supports women discoverers 5.Jewish polemic presupposes empty tomb5.Jewish polemic presupposes empty tomb

11 FACT #3 Disciples of Jesus had experiences that they interpreted to be the risen Christ

12 DISCIPLES - SUPPORT 1.Mostly apparent from the writings of the New Testament1.Mostly apparent from the writings of the New Testament 2.Jewish predisposition of the disciples did not allow for the category of resurrections prior to the end of time 3.Martyrdom3.Martyrdom

13 FACT #4 Specific enemies of Jesus had experiences they interpreted to be the risen Christ Saul/Paul James, the brother of Jesus

14 ENEMIES - SUPPORT 1.New Testament writings1.New Testament writings 1.“…he appeared to James, then to all the apostles. Last of all, as to one untimely born, he appeared also to me.” – 1 Corinthians 15 2.Martyrdom2.Martyrdom 1.Paul – tortured and beheaded by Nero in Rome in A.D. 671.Paul – tortured and beheaded by Nero in Rome in A.D James – stoned2.James – stoned 3.Predispositions did not allow for category of resurrection3.Predispositions did not allow for category of resurrection

15 EVALUATING THEORIES Explanatory PowerExplanatory Power How well does the theory explain the data? Explanatory ScopeExplanatory Scope How many of the data does the theory explain? Plausibility Given prior information, does the theory make sense? Ad HocAd Hoc Is the theory arbitrarily contrived to fit the data so as to become meaningless?

16 HALLUCINATION THEORY Fact 1: Crucifixion YESFact 1: Crucifixion YES Fact 2: Empty Tomb NOFact 2: Empty Tomb NO Fact 3: Disciples STRAINFact 3: Disciples STRAIN Fact 4: Enemies NOFact 4: Enemies NO This theory is unsuccessfulThis theory is unsuccessful Narrow Scope - Facts 2&4 are left untouched Low Power - the body could easily have been produced from the tomb Implausible - hallucinations on this scale have never been reported, ever

17 DISCIPLES STOLE THE BODY THEORY Fact 1: Crucifixion YESFact 1: Crucifixion YES Fact 2: Empty Tomb YESFact 2: Empty Tomb YES Fact 3: Disciples STRAINFact 3: Disciples STRAIN Fact 4: Enemies NOFact 4: Enemies NO This theory is unsuccessfulThis theory is unsuccessful Limited Scope: The conversion of enemies is left unexplained Implausible: The martyrdom of the disciples makes no sense on this view

18 SWOON THEORY Fact 1: Crucifixion STRAINFact 1: Crucifixion STRAIN Fact 2: Empty Tomb YESFact 2: Empty Tomb YES Fact 3: Disciples STRAINFact 3: Disciples STRAIN Fact 4: Enemies BIG STRAINFact 4: Enemies BIG STRAIN This theory is unsuccessfulThis theory is unsuccessful Low Power - Disciples had a view of Jesus as conquering death Highly Implausible - Only 1 known crucifixion survivor; distances are too far to travel Ad Hoc - nothing like this ever happened and zero reason to think it ever would

19 RABBI DUDE NAMED "JESUS" THEORY Fact 1: Crucifixion NOFact 1: Crucifixion NO Fact 2: Empty Tomb NOFact 2: Empty Tomb NO Fact 3: Disciples NOFact 3: Disciples NO Fact 4: Enemies NOFact 4: Enemies NO This theory is unsuccessfulThis theory is unsuccessful No Scope - All facts are discounted No Power - All facts are discounted Implausible - The historical documentation makes no sense on this view Contrived - No honest examination of history would come to this view

20 JESUS IS JUST A REHASH OF HORUS THEORY Fact 1: Crucifixion NOFact 1: Crucifixion NO Fact 2: Empty Tomb NOFact 2: Empty Tomb NO Fact 3: Disciples NOFact 3: Disciples NO Fact 4: Enemies NOFact 4: Enemies NO This theory is unsuccessfulThis theory is unsuccessful No Scope - All facts are discounted No Power - All facts are discounted Implausible - This is anachronistic given the religio- historical backdrop Contrived - No honest examination of history would come to this view

21 HONORABLE MENTIONS Identical Twin TheoryIdentical Twin Theory Jesus Was a Space Alien Theory Necromancer Stole the Body and Disciples Had Hallucinations Theory

22 THE RESURRECTION HYPOTHESIS Fact 1: Crucifixion YESFact 1: Crucifixion YES Fact 2: Empty Tomb YESFact 2: Empty Tomb YES Fact 3: Disciples YESFact 3: Disciples YES Fact 4: Enemies YESFact 4: Enemies YES This theory successfully accounts for all of the data The only objection would be the implausibility of theism/miracles; however, this is a philosophical, not historical, objection

23 QUESTIONS?


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