4Kalam Cosmological Argument Purpose: Establishes the existence of a First Cause of the universe.Importance: If successful, makes atheism very difficult. Additionally, eliminates religions dependent on an eternal universe, e.g. some forms of Hinduism and Buddhism.Make slides more concise (gist at a glance). Split some of the slides up and have more descriptive titles. Make sure it’s clear how it all ties into the argument.
5Kalam Cosmological Argument Premise: Everything that begins to exist has a cause.Premise: The universe began to exist.Conclusion: Therefore, the universe has a cause.Label premise, premise, premise3
6Defending the first premise Premise 1: “Everything that begins to exist has a cause.”Being comes from being; never from non-being.Literally, worse than magic to say otherwise!Science is dedicated to find explanations and causes of effects.Denying this premise would be rather anti-intellectual4
7Defending the second premise Premise 2: “The universe began to exist”Philosophical ReasoningEmpirical Confirmation5
8Philosophical Defense of Premise 2 Premise 2: “The universe began to exist”Arguments against an actual infiniteHilbert’s HotelInfinity Library5
9Empirical Confirmation of Premise 2 Premise 2: “The universe began to exist.”Second Law of ThermodynamicsThe entropy of the universe would never decrease.An eternal universe would have already expended all usable energyThis holds for oscillatory models of the universe as well.6
10Empirical Confirmation of Premise 2 Premise 2: “The universe began to exist”Standard Big Bang ModelEquations of general relativity predicted expanding universe.Red Shift provides empirical evidence of expansion + single point origin.Alternative models have failed leaving the Standard Big Bang model.6
11Empirical Confirmation of Premise 2 Premise 2: “The universe began to exist.”BVG TheoremAny universe which has been, on average, expanding throughout its history cannot be eternal in the pastThis holds for multiverse scenarios as well.Any model of the universe must have an absolute beginning.6
12Conclusion Conclusion: “Therefore, the universe has a cause.” Since the universe cannot cause itself, the cause of the universe must be beyond the universe which entails that the cause isSpacelessTimelessImmaterialUncausedPowerfulThese properties sound an awful lot like…7
13“In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.” Genesis 1:1
14Teleological Argument The fine-tuning of the universe is due to either physical necessity, chance or design.The fine-tuning of the universe is not due to physical necessity or chance.Therefore, it is due to design.Trim down the words. Start off with the definition of fine-tuning (this slide).
15Fine-tuning Fine-tuning does not equal design. It simply refers to the fact that many constants and initial conditions of the universe have an extremely narrow range to fall into.Start with definition. “fine-tuning does not equal design.” three reasons on next (other) slide
16Fine-tuning Only three possible reasons for this exist: Physical necessityChanceDesign
17Physical NecessityThis means that the constants and conditions that we see are based on the laws of nature.A higher natural lawInfinite regress.Trim the text. Clear definition
18Chance Highly impossible. What if there are multiple universes? Lottery analogyWhat if there are multiple universes?Poker gameWithout causes, how does science operate?“Nothing comes from nothing. Nothing ever could.”Infinite, therefore we don’t need an explanation for ours because any possible thing will happen in any one of the universes. Steer away from mechanisms.
19Anthropic principleThis is the idea that we can detect only the constants and conditions of our own universe.Basically, if the universe wasn’t life-permitting, we wouldn’t know about it so an explanation isn’t really needed (the Weak AP).The Strong AP goes further and claims that only life-permitting universes are possible.The firing squad analogy indicates that there must be some kind of explanation.“If the universe wasn’t life-permitting, we wouldn’t be here to know it.”
20Design Therefore, the only option left is design. Psalm 19:1, “The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of His hands.”Define design (distinguish from evolution?).
22Moral ArgumentPremise: If God does not exist, objective moral values and duties do not exist.Premise: Objective moral values and duties do exist.Conclusion: Therefore, God exists.
23Definitions Moral values = principles. Moral duties = action. Love and hateMoral duties = action.ObligationsObjectivity is independent of people.True for all people, at all times, and all places
24Premise 1 Can there be objective morality without God? If God does not exist, objective moral values and duties do not exist.Can there be objective morality without God?Presence of God, not belief in God.Evolution and sociobiological pressures have created morality.This morality, however, is not objective.C.S. Lewis: is vs ought (mere Christianity)- put somewhere“There is only one Lawgiver and Judge, the one who is able to save and destroy.” –James 4:12a
25Premise 2 Is there anything that’s objectively wrong? Objective moral values and duties do exist.Is there anything that’s objectively wrong?Or is it just social construction?Is there any actual things that are actually wrong that are wrong for all places all times all people (have example in notes). If I punch you in the face? Shy away from the word “absolute”
26Conclusion Therefore, God exists. Thus, we can determine that a lawgiver, one that is beyond humans, exists.“Indeed, when gentiles, who do not have the law, do by nature things required by the law, they are a law for themselves, even though they do not have the law. They show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts now accusing, now even defending them.”Romans 2:14-15
28Minimal Facts Argument Purpose: Argument from historical data in favor of the resurrection of Jesus of NazarethImportance: Functions as the capstone of a cumulative case for specifically Christian theism.Now, the Minimal Facts argument. The main point of this argument is to demonstrate the resurrection of Jesus through a set of historical facts garnered by historical study of the New Testament. Up until now, we have been surveying arguments that, if successful, demonstrate the truth of theism, namely, there is some kind of God. What makes this argument special is that it provides an identification of this God. If the Resurrection is true, then, no other theistic religion has a chance. The previous arguments leave the door open for Judaism, Islam, etc. This argument serves as a razor that slices off all competitors to leave Christian theism as the last one standing.Matthew 27:33-28:15; Mark 15:22-16:8; Luke 23:33-24:43; John 19:16-20:23
29Background Four historical facts Consensus among scholars (95%) Resurrection is the best explanationThe Resurrection is the basis for the Christian faith.1 Corinthians 15:14Need more background on what we’re doing.22
30Fact #1 Jesus of Nazareth died by Roman crucifixion. Found in both Christian and secular sources
31Fact #2On the morning following the burial of Jesus, his tomb was found empty by a group of his female followers.Only about 75% of scholars agree with this.Most contested
32Fact #3Disciples of Jesus had experiences they interpreted to be the risen Christ.
33Fact #4Several specific enemies of Jesus had experiences they also interpreted to be the risen Christ.Paul and James, for example.
34Evaluating TheoriesExplanatory ScopeHow many data does the theory explain?Explanatory PowerHow well does the theory explain these data?PlausibilityGiven prior information, does the theory make sense?Ad-hocIs the theory arbitrarily and meaninglessly contrived to fit the data?TRANSITION! These are the methods by which a particular theory is evaluated. This argument will contend that the Resurrection hypothesis meets all of these criteria and the remaining theories do not. Let’s look at a few of the popular theories and test them against this rubric.27
35Hallucination Theory Make interactive (if time) Fact 1: Crucifixion YESFact 2: Empty Tomb NOFact 3: Disciples YES/STRAINFact 4: Enemies NOThis theory is unsuccessfulNarrow Scope - Facts 2&4 are untouched.Low Power - The body could’ve easily been produced from the tombImplausible - Hallucinations on this scale have never been reported, ever.Make interactive (if time)28
36Disciples Stole the Body and Lied Fact 1: Crucifixion YESFact 2: Empty Tomb YESFact 3: Disciples YES/STRAINFact 4: Enemies NOThis theory is unsuccessfulLimited Scope: The conversion of enemies is left unexplained.Implausible: The martyrdom of the disciples makes no sense on this view.29
37Swoon Theory Fact 1: Crucifixion NO Fact 2: Empty Tomb YES Fact 3: Disciples YES/STRAINFact 4: Enemies YES/STRAINThis theory is unsuccessfulLow Power - Disciples thought Jesus conquered death.Highly Implausible - Only 1 known crucifixion survivor, distance traveled is too far.Ad hoc - nothing like this ever happened and no reason to think it would.30
38Probably Some Dude Named Jesus Theory Fact 1: Crucifixion NOFact 2: Empty Tomb NOFact 3: Disciples NOFact 4: Enemies NOThis theory is unsuccessfulNo Scope - All facts are discountedNo Power - All facts are discountedImplausible - The historical documentation makes no sense on this viewContrived - No honest examination of history would come to this viewJesus was most likely a man who led a small religious cult in first century Palestine, but legend about him developed over the years after his death in an effort to convert people to Christianity.31
39Jesus is Just a Rehash of Horus Theory Fact 1: Crucifixion NOFact 2: Empty Tomb NOFact 3: Disciples NOFact 4: Enemies NOThis theory is unsuccessfulNo Scope - All facts are discountedNo Power - All facts are discountedImplausible - This is anachronistic given the religio-historical backdrop.Contrived - No honest examination of history would come to this viewThe story of Jesus Christ is a myth that developed much like the myths of other ancient near east religions
40The Resurrection Hypothesis Fact 1: Crucifixion YESFact 2: Empty Tomb YESFact 3: Disciples YESFact 4: Enemies YESThis theory successfully accounts for all of the dataThe only objection would be the implausibility of theism. However, the purpose of the previous arguments is to uproot such an objection.33
41Euthyphro DilemmaAre moral acts willed by God because they are good? Or are they good because they are willed by God?This is a false dichotomy since there is a third option: good is based on God’s nature.The Euthyphro Dilemma assumes that good is independent of God, but this is actually false.Stick slide at end