2Our Political Beginnings American system of government did not begin with Declaration of Independence or the US Constitution…Goals of section:Examine early English concepts of government that influenced American colonies (Ordered, Limited, Representative)Analyze influence of Magna Carta, Petition of Right, and English Bill of RightsCompare the structure of royal colony governments and our National Government
3English Concepts of Government Ordered GovernmentOrderly regulationEnglish colonists created local governments based on what they had known in EnglandMany of the governmental offices/units are still around today: offices of sheriff, justice of peace, grand jury, counties, etc.Limited GovernmentIdea that government is restricted in what it may doIndividuals have certain rights government cannot take awayRepresentative GovernmentIdea that government should serve the will of the people“government of, by, and for the people” (Abraham Lincoln)
4Landmark English Documents The Magna Carta (1215)Group of barons were seeking protection against the heavy handed and arbitrary acts of King JohnIncluded guarantees of rights such as trial by jury and due process of law (protection against arbitrariness)Originally intended only for privileged classesThe Petition of Right (1628)Limited the King’s power in several important waysDemanded that king could not arbitrarily imprison an individual—trial or law was neededChallenged divine right of kings—even monarchs had to obey lawThe Bill of Rights (1688)Further prevented abuse by kings and gave more power to parliament
5The English ColoniesRoyal ColoniesProprietary ColoniesCharter Colonies
6Thirteen Colonies Often described as “13 schools of government” Why? Established separately over about 125 yearsFirst colony: VirginiaLast colony: GeorgiaEach colony came out of a particular set of circumstancesSimilarity: each colony established by a charterGave colonists or companies a grant of land and some governing rights
7Royal Colonies Subjected to the direct control of the Crown New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and GeorgiaThese colonies were ones that had their charter revoked by King of EnglandKing then appointed a governor to serve in each colony as well as a council (which later became the upper house of legislature and the colony’s highest court”Lower house were elected property ownersRuling with “stern hand”
8Proprietary Colonies Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania Organized by a proprietor—person whom the king had made a grant of land toGovernor appointed by proprietorMaryland and Delaware had bicameral legislaturesPennsylvania was a unicameral bodyKing still held significant power in these colonies
9Charter ColoniesMassachusetts Bay Colony was first charter colony in 1629Connecticut and Rhode Island were other charter colonies—founded by religious dissidents from MassachusettsWere largely self governingGovernors elected each year and largely operated out of King’s control and approvalConnecticut and Rhode Island charters were so “liberal” that they were kept unchanged even after independence, finally changed in 1818 and 1843, respectivelyClass discussion: Some historians believe that if Britain had allowed other colonies the same freedoms, the Revolution wouldn’t have occurred. Do you agree?
10Chapter 2: Section 2“We must all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately” (Ben Franklin; spoken to other members of Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776)
11The Coming of Independence British Colonial PoliciesControlled by King through the Board of Trade and the Privy CouncilParliament minimal involvement in management of coloniesColonists became use to self rule“Let us keep the dogges poore, and we’ll make them do as we please”Taxes largely unenforcedEffectively operated like a federal system of governmentKing George III: 1760Stern hand—taxes enforced, more restrictive trade acts
12Events and Ideas Leading to American Independence The Albany PlanThe Stamp ActNew Restrictive LawsFirst Continental CongressSecond Continental CongressDeclaration of Independence
13Early Attempts & Albany Plan New England Confederation (1643)“League of friendship”The Albany PlanAlbany Plan of Union (1754)Benjamin FranklinDelegates from each colonyForm a military, regulate trade, war/peace with Native Americans, and collect taxes
14Stamp Act CongressBritain’s tax and trade policies increased resentment among colonists, among them the Stamp Act of 1765Colonists viewed the taxes as both severe but more importantly, “taxation without representation”Stamp Act Congress of 1765Declaration of Rights and GrievancesEventually British Parliament repealed the Stamp Act—but other laws followed that restricted freedom of colonies furtherOrganized resistance began to grow in coloniesBoston Tea Party
15The First Continental Congress In response to “Intolerable Acts”September 5, 1774 (no Georgia)PhiladelphiaDeclaration of RightsResultsBoycott tradeLocal Committees
16Second Continental Congress Philadelphia 1775 (three weeks after Lexington and Concord)First form of national government for the United States (July 1776 – March 1781)Unicameral congress exercised both legislative and executive powersJohn Hancock made President of the CongressNamed Washington the Commander and Chief of the Army
17Declaration of Independence Congress named a committee of five to prepare document: Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, Thomas JeffersonGroundbreaking in several waysIdea that every person is “created equal”Conception of “certain unalienable rights”Principle that government should be based on “consent of the governed” as opposed to divine right or tradition
18First State Constitutions Common FeaturesPopular SovereigntyPeople recognized as only source of governmental authorityLimited GovernmentState governments could only exercise powers granted to them by people in constitutionsCivil Rights and LibertiesMany began with a Bill of RightsSeparation of Powers/Checks and BalancesDivided among three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial
20Group AssignmentA. What weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation made a lasting government impossible?B. What were the effects of these weaknesses?Separate into groups, have at least three points for each questionGroup 1: Kotarski, Moore, Le, ViancosGroup 2: Henning, Contreras, Nasr, MillsGroup 3: Darouiche, Leach, Jarlsjo, McStravickGroup 4: Swanson, Connell, Cano, WhaleyGroup 5: Lucas, Hondros, Johnson, Dotson
21Articles of Confederation Approved on November 15, 1777Established a “firm league of friendship” among the StatesEssentially an alliance of independent states instead of truly a government “of the people”Took over three years for all the states to ratify the documentMaryland last to ratify in 1781Governmental StructureCongress sole body created—unicameral, one vote per stateExecutive and judicial powers handled by committees of CongressPowers of CongressWar and peace, make treaties, borrow money, build navy, raise army by asking for troops, settle disputes among states, etc.State Obligations
22Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation One vote for each stateCongress powerless to collect taxesCongress powerless to regulate foreign affairs/interstate commerceNo executive powerNo national court systemAmendment only with consent of all the states9/13 majority to pass lawsClass discussion: Why were the Articles adopted, given their many flaws? Were the Articles appropriate for their time?
23Examples of Weaknesses States often refused to support central government, both financially and otherwiseSeveral made agreements with foreign governments without approval of CongressMost organized own militariesStates taxed one another’s goods and even banned some tradePrinted own money with little backing—economic chaos ensued
24Shays’ Rebellion Assignment Shays’ Rebellion sharply divided American opinions on government1) Which group supported the rebels?2) Did this group embrace or fear a strong national government?3) What were the long-term effects of the rebellion?4) How did it shape the Framers’ debate on revising the Articles?5) Draw some connections to present day debates/current events.
25A Need for Stronger Government Shays’ RebellionMount VernonMaryland & VirginiaDispute over Potomac River & Chesapeake BayAnnapolisSept. 11, 1786Poor turnoutPhiladelphiaFebConstitutional Convention
27Creating the Constitution “the most wonderful work ever struck off at a given time by the brain and purpose of man” (English statesman, William E. Gladstone)FramersMostly composed of a new generation of American political figuresOrganization and ProcedureUnanimously elected Washington as president of ConventionEach state had one vote, majority needed to passJames MadisonNotes“Father of the Constitution”
28The Virginia Plan James Madison Three Branches Bicameral Congress legislative, executive, judicialBicameral CongressRepresentation based on population or upon amount of money it gave for support of central governmentLower house popularly elected, upper house chosen by HouseUS Congress would have additional powers—granting central government power to enforce its decisionsSmaller states found the plan “too radical”
29The New Jersey Plan Unicameral Congress US Congress Plural executive Each state equally representedUS CongressAdd closely limited powers to tax and regulate trade between statesPlural executiveChosen by Congress and could be removed at request of majority of States’ governorsSingle “supreme Tribunal” appointed by executive to head federal judiciaryMain difference?
30Compromises Connecticut Compromise Three-Fifths Compromise Bicameral CongressSenate: states represented equallyHouse: representation based on population“Great Compromise”Three-Fifths CompromiseSouthern states vs. Northern StatesCompromise to allow slaves to count for 3/5 of a person; but southerners had to pay taxes on their slavesCommerce and Slave Trade CompromiseConvention agreed that Congress had to have power to regulate foreign + interstate tradeSouthern worries (tobacco + slave trade)
31“Bundle of Compromises” Convention spent much of its time “sawing boards to make them fit” (Franklin)Wide variety of opinions that required compromisesIssues that required compromise: selection of President, treaty-making process, structure of national court system, amendment processHowever, many Framers agreed on basic issues: need for a new national government, a federal government, dedication to principles of popular sovereignty and limited government, separation of powers, checks and balances
32Constitution Sources Ancient Greece and Rome Contemporary European political philosophyRousseauLockeOwn experiencesArticles of ConfederationState constitutions“Sir, I agree with this Constitution to all its faults, if they are such; because I think a general Government necessary for us…” (Ben Franklin)
33Group Assignment: Section 4 Assessment 2) What momentous decision did the Framers make at the beginning of the Philadelphia Convention?4) What was agreed to under the Connecticut Compromise?6) Compare and contrast the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan.8) The Constitution has been called a “bundle of compromises.” Is this an accurate description of the document? Explain your answer.
35Fight for Ratification Originally, Articles of Confederation could only be amended if all the states agreed to itFramers determined it did not have to be amended, but replacedArticle VII: The ratification of the conventions of nine States shall be sufficient for the establishment of the Constitution between he States so ratifying the same.Changing the rules of the game?
36Important Debate Federalists & Anti-Federalists Federalists: Madison, HamiltonStressed weaknesses of the ArticlesArgued that new central government was requiredAnti-Federalists: Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, John Hancock, Samuel AdamsMany objected to ratification process and disliked that there was no mention of GodFeared government would become too powerfulTwo major points of contention:1) the greatly increased powers of the central government2) lack of bill of rights
37Quote“These lawyers, and men of learning, and monied men, that talk so finely and glass over matters so smoothly, to make us poor illiterate people, swallow down the pill, expect to get into Congress themselves; they expect to…get all the power and all the money into their own hands, and then they will swallow up all us little folks…just as the whale swallowed up Jonah” (Amos Singletary)
38Ratification Problems Nine States RatifyInitially, nine states ratify the ConstitutionTwo important holdouts: Virginia + New YorkVirginia’s RatificationIntense debate between Federalists and Anti-FederalistsGeorge Washington interventionNew York’s RatificationThe Federalist (Hamilton, Madison, Jay)Inaugurating the StateNew York chosen as temporary capitalGeorge Washington elected President by unanimous vote in 1789
39Group Assignment: Comparing Revolutions 1) Research the assigned revolution.Determine the:A) causesB) idealsC) outcomes of the assigned revolution2) Compare the American Revolution to this other revolution.Group 1 (Haitian Revolution): Kotarski, Moore, Le, ViancosGroup 2 (Mexican War of Independence): Henning, Contreras, Nasr, MillsGroup 3 (French Revolution): Darouiche, Leach, Jarlsjo, McStravickGroup 4 (Haitian Revolution): Swanson, Connell, Cano, WhaleyGroup 5 (French Revolution): Lucas, Hondros, Johnson, Dotson