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Kentrack Kentrack is a computer program designed to analyze a railroad track segment as a structure Uses Bousinessq’s Elastic Theory Uses Burmister’s Multi-Layer System and Finite Element Analysis to perform calculations

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Introduction Critical Stresses and Strains are Calculated Design Lives are Predicted Based on Fatigue Effects (Cumulative Damage Criteria) of Repeated Loadings Uses DAMA Program – Developed for Highway Pavements

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Background Originally Kentrack was written in FORTRAN for DOS operation Since been upgraded to a Windows Platform 3.0 was written in Visual Studio using a.Net Framework in C#

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Background The original development goal was to analyze traditional All-Granular trackbeds and Asphalt Underlayment trackbeds 3.0 has the option for All-Granular Asphalt Underlayment Combination – Granular & Asphalt

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All-Granular Traditional Track structure

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Asphalt Underlayment

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Combination Contains an asphalt layer and a granular subballast layer

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Kentrack Theory Superposition of Loads

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Kentrack Theory Finite Element Method – Used to calculate the stress and strain in the rail and tie

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Kentrack Theory Multilayered System – Used to calculate the stress and strain in each layer

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Kentrack Theory Each type of trackbed is composed of different materials – All-Granular trackbed layers include Ballast, Subballast, and Subgrade – Asphalt trackbed layers include Ballast, Asphalt and Subgrade – Combination trackbed layers include Ballast, Asphalt, Subballast, and Subgrade Different equations are used to describe the properties of each material

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Kentrack Theory Ballast – In new trackbeds the ballast behaves non-linearly – In aged trackbeds the ballast behaves linearly Subgrade – Behaves as a linear elastic material

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Kentrack Theory Asphalt is a visco-elastic material The dynamic modulus depends on the following: – Temperature – Aggregate passing the No. 200 sieve in % – Volume of bitumen % – Volume of air voids % – Asphalt viscosity – Load frequency

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Kentrack Theory Damage Analysis – Based on minor linear damage analysis criteria – Performance is based on periods For Kentrack this is four seasons

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Kentrack Theory Predicted number of repetitions Each car equals one repetition

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Kentrack Theory Predicted number of repetitions Wheel Load= lb/wheel For one car the total weight = lb/wheel x 8 = 286,000 lb/rep / 2000 = 143 ton/rep The number of repetitions assumed per year= 200,000 rep/yr The traffic per year = 200,000 rep/yr x 143 ton/rep = 28,600,000 GT/yr / 1 x 10 6 = 28.6 MGT/yr

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Subgrade Damage Analysis Excessive permanent deformation controls failure Deformation is governed by the vertical compressive stress on the top of the subgrade Based on Highway experience The number of allowable repetitions before failure

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Asphalt Damage Analysis Fatigue cracking controls failure Fatigue cracking is governed by the tensile strain in the bottom of the asphalt Based on highway experience The number of allowable repetitions before failure

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Failure Criteria All-Granular Trackbed Vertical Compressive Stress on Subgrade

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Failure Criteria Asphalt Trackbed Vertical Compressive Stress on Subgrade, Tensile Strain at Bottom of Asphalt

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Kentrack Theory Combination Trackbed Vertical Compressive Stress on Subgrade, Tensile Strain at Bottom of Asphalt

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Typical cross section All-Granular Trackbed Sub. Mod. = 15,000 psi 28.6 MGT/yr

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Typical cross section Asphalt Trackbed Sub. Mod. = 15,000 psi 28.6 MGT/yr

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Typical cross section Combination Trackbed Sub. Mod. = 15,000 psi 28.6 MGT/yr

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Critical Outputs* Variable All-Granular Trackbed Asphalt Trackbed Combination Trackbed Subgrade Vertical Compressive Stress (psi) Asphalt Strain (in/in)N/A Service life of Subgrade (yrs) Service life of Asphalt (yrs)N/A *Axle Load = 36 tons, Sub. Mod. = 15,000 psi, 28.6 MGT/yr

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Material Properties Properties to be inputted are often industry standards or specified by the railroad Several properties are set as defaults as noted in the tutorial The majority of default values can be changed by the user

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Effect of Subgrade Modulus on Subgrade Compressive Stress

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Effect of Subgrade Modulus on Subgrade Design Life 36 Ton Axle Load 28.6 MGT/yr

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Effect of Subgrade Modulus on Asphalt Tensile Strain

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Effect of Subgrade Modulus on Asphalt Design Life 36 Ton Axle Load 28.6 MGT/yr

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Kentrack The output values are stored automatically in a text file that is over written in each new analysis The text file can be saved by the user after the analysis Through the input process the program validates inputs Results can be used for performance-based structural design and analysis

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Summary Kentrack is a versatile program for the design and analysis of All-Granular, Asphalt Underlayment, and Combination Trackbeds Subgrade compressive stress, asphalt tensile strain, and associated design lives are computed Design lives are considered conservative since they are based on highway failure criteria The relative effects of varying input parameters can be assessed

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Asphalt Trackbed Tutorial Start the program Select the trackbed to be analyzed

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