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No. 18 of 19 Geosynthetics in Asphalt Pavements by Prof. S.F. Brown FEng University of Nottingham The information presented in this document has been reviewed.

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Presentation on theme: "No. 18 of 19 Geosynthetics in Asphalt Pavements by Prof. S.F. Brown FEng University of Nottingham The information presented in this document has been reviewed."— Presentation transcript:

1 No. 18 of 19 Geosynthetics in Asphalt Pavements by Prof. S.F. Brown FEng University of Nottingham The information presented in this document has been reviewed by the Education Committee of the International Geosynthetics Society and is believed to fairly represent the current state of practice. However, the International Geosynthetics Society does not accept any liability arising in any way from use of the information presented.

2 Lecture Outline The pavement design problem Reinforcement Design methods Fatigue/failure Construction requirements Background research

3 The Pavement Design Problem

4 Asphalt Pavement Mechanics Failure mechanisms New roads Maintenance of existing roads

5 Failure Mechanisms Fatigue cracking Rutting Importance of repeated loading

6 Design Requirements for Asphalt Pavements

7 Typical Fatigue Cracking

8 Fatigue Cracking Principles Crack initiation depends on tensile strain Crack propagation depends on tensile stress Interaction of asphalt layer and foundation

9 Rutting Mechanism for Asphalt Layer Permanent shear strains near surface High temperatures Heavy wheel loads High traffic volume

10 Typical Wheel-track Rutting

11 Foundation Rutting Lack of adequate load spreading Granular layer or soil Problems of water

12 Roles for Geosynthetics Separation/Filtration Reinforcement

13 Separation & Filtration Interface between soil & aggregate Prevent contamination Avoid build-up of pore pressure

14 Mechanism of Separation Appropriate pore size for geosynthetic Advantages of interlock Construction expedient or long term effect

15 Reinforcement Only deals with potential failure mechanisms No effect on transient strains No reduction in surface deflection Reduction in permanent strain level Restriction to crack propagation

16 Foundation Reinforcement Reduce rutting from construction traffic Haul roads or foundations to permanent roads

17 Sub-base Rutting from Construction traffic

18 Locations for Reinforcement of Foundations

19 Design Methods Oxford/Jewell analytical method Based on increase of subgrade bearing capacity Charts available Geosynthetic at bottom of granular layer

20 Oxford/Jewell Design Principle

21 Oxford/Jewell Method Input parameters –Undrained shear strength and unit weight of subgrade –Applied contact pressure & wheel load –Shear strength of granular material –Load spreading angle –No of load applications Output –Layer thickness; reinforced & unreinforced –Tensile force in geosynthetic

22 Design Chart 1 for Unpaved Roads (After Jewell)

23 Design Chart 2 for Unpaved roads (after Jewell)

24 Asphalt Reinforcement Increase in fatigue life Reduction in rutting New construction Strengthening overlays Generally requires stiff geogrids

25 Fatigue Cracking Locate where tensile stress/strain is maximum Restricts crack growth

26 Design for Fatigue Cracking Fatigue life increased by 10 times Grid located at bottom of layer Use in mechanistic design method

27 Approximate Design for Rutting Life for given strain level increased by factor of three Use with mechanistic design method Grid in top half of layer

28 Grid Locations for Asphalt reinforcement

29 Typical Design Chart for UK conditions

30 Typical Design Chart for USA : New York State Design Life (msa) Asphalt Layer Thickness (mm) Unreinforced 1 layer 2 layers

31 Reinforcement of Asphalt Overlays Rutting Reflection cracking Composite construction

32 Rutting in Overlays Locate where strains are largest; mid- depth Increase in life to critical rut of three times Requires stiff geogrid

33 Reflection Cracking Locate near to existing discontinuity Mechanistic design method still evolving Stiff geogrid best Geotextile can waterproof

34 Parameters for Reflection Crack Reinforcement Stiffness of geogrid Shear strength of interface Location and installation of geogrid

35 Construction Requirements Good site practice Geosynthetic must be firmly fixed and correctly located Attention to interface conditions Resistance to damage from hot asphalt

36 Background Research Granular layers Asphalt layers

37 Geotextiles in Granular Layers

38 Importance of Interlock

39 Reflection Cracking Reduction

40 Reflection Cracking Comparisons (Caltabiano & Brunton, 1991)

41 Rutting of Asphalt (Brown et al,1985)

42 Rutting from Wheel Tracking Tests on Asphalt Slabs

43 Reinforcement of Asphalt


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