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Table of contents JM. PiauPremium pavements from alternative material for European roads – Keynotes3 F. SinisPremium pavements from alternative material.

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Presentation on theme: "Table of contents JM. PiauPremium pavements from alternative material for European roads – Keynotes3 F. SinisPremium pavements from alternative material."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Table of contents JM. PiauPremium pavements from alternative material for European roads – Keynotes3 F. SinisPremium pavements from alternative material for European roads – What is the situation?15 K. KrassThe need for environmental assessment to promote sustainability 33 D. François General assessment methodology for best use of alternative materials49 H.Van der SlootComments to the assessment method - Environmental Part77 S. BoetcherPrototype environmental annex to product standard89 B. KoendersHealth, Safety, Environmental assessment105 S. ColwellReaction to fire performance of pavement materials121 E. NielsenMechanical Assessment Towards functional specification irrespective of type of material (Modelling)131 C Nicholls Implications of asphalt deformation results for standardisation135 S SolimanTechniques for recycling151

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4 Premium pavements from alternative materials for European Roads SAMARIS final seminar Keynotes Jean-Michel PIAU Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées SAMARIS Pavement Stream scientific coordinator

5 Recycling: a multi-facet world Recycling in pavement construction : a generic wording and a complex world covering at least 4 different situations Proper recycling of road materials (untreated, bituminous, cement materials)  without change of function Ex: Base course materials  base course materials  with change of function Ex: wearing course materials  base course materials  In place or after storage Re-use of initially non road materials  Ex: demolition concrete from buildings, scrap tyres,… First use of materials  Ex: industrial by-products, waste material (MSWI),…

6 Main alternative materials considered in SAMARIS  Industrial by-products  Slags Steel slag (basic oxygen and electric arc) Air cooled blast furnace slag Ground granulated blast furnace slag  Coal bottom ash  Coal fly ash  Foundry sand  “Waste” products (before re-use)  Mining waste rock (colliery spoil)  Building demolished by-products  Municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash  Waste glass  Scrap tyres

7 Potential Advantages Adequacy of Recycling with the general objectives of Sustainable Development Policy  Pav. Const. needs important quantity of “granular” materials  Spare of natural resources  Reduction of existing stockpiles  Diminution of the storage of new waste materials  Less transport of materials (especially, in the case of in place recycling) : save of energy, less damage to roads, increase of road safety,…  Possibility of economical savings

8 Difficulties & Potential Dangers A priori Recycling involves a wide diversity of materials, generally less well controlled and known than standard ones. Those ones must be:  No detrimental to the environment and the health at short term, especially for workers on job site  No detrimental to environment and health at long term, especially to ground water  In accordance with the expected performance of the structure: Durability Properties of the wearing course - skid resistance,…

9 Complementary approaches to solve the problems  International bibliographic study (and transposition)  SAMARIS states of the art & guides, gathering European experiences  Field experiments at limited scale  Not covered by SAMARIS

10 Complementary approaches to solve the problems  International bibliographic study (and transposition)  SAMARIS states of the art & guides, gathering European experiences  Field experiments at limited scale  Not covered by SAMARIS  Global performantial assessment of alternative materials at lab scale, covering : Environmental and health aspects Mechanical performance & durability aspects Choice of the best application as a function of the material and context  Main focus of SAMARIS pavement stream  Pre-treatment of alternative materials before road application Sorting, Homogenization, Deactivation, …  …

11 Elaboration of alternative materials Industrial process (WP6 : Francisco Sinis) D12 General assessment methodology for the best use of alternative materials Concept of use-scenario (WP3: Denis François) D4, D9, D16 Assessment of mechanical performances in lab Performantial approach of permanent deformation in UBM & AM (WP5: Erik Nielsen) D6,D10,D11, D27,D28 Detailed assessment of environmental, health and safety aspects Draft to environmental annexes to standard products (WP4: Cliff Nicholls) D7,D23,D24 D8,D20 (fire) Technical guide for the recycling of the main generic families of alternative materials (WP6) D5,D15,D29

12 SAMARIS deliverables (1/3) Elaboration of alternative materials D12:Recommendations for mixing plants for recycling works * General assessment methodology D4:Report on existing specific national regulations applied to material recycling D9:Critical analysis of European documents D16:Report on a methodology for assessing the possibility to re-use alternative materials in road construction *

13 SAMARIS deliverables (2/3) Assessment of environment, safety & health aspects D7:SoA on test methods for the detection of hazardous components in road materials to be recycled D23: Test methods for the detection of hazardous components* D24: Environmental annex to road product standards* D8: Review of road authorities’ positions on reaction to fire of pavement materials D20: Testing procedure for reaction to fire of pavement materials *

14 SAMARIS deliverables (3/3) Assessment of permanent deformation in UBM & asphalt materials D6 :Data base and reference full scale tests D10: Models for prediction of permanent deformation of unbound granular materials in flexible pavements D11: Models for prediction of rutting in bituminous surface layers D27/D28: Calibration and validation report for modelling of permanent deformation of unbound (D27) and bituminous (D28) materials in flexible pavements and recommendations for the definition of performance-based specifications* Technical guide for the recycling of the main alternative materials D5: Literature review on recycling of by-products in road construction in Europe D15: Report on the situation on recycling in Central European countries D29: Technical guide on techniques of recycling*

15 Precision about performantial approaches for road material assessment In terms of road material design, the current practice is based on a mixed approach between :  recipe approach  performantial approach Recipe approach  Based on material components (ex: fine, sand, granulates, binder,…)  Components specifications  Mix design based on the mass or volumetric content of the different components  Intensive use of empirical relationships fitted by feed-back from field observation Adapted to standard, well-known (natural) materials and formulae Performantial approach  Rather based on the direct assessment of the materials themselves  Try use as much as possible material models and structural models, for the prediction of the material behaviour within the structure Better adapted to innovation and to the introduction of a wide diversity of materials The difference between recipe and performantial approaches can be extended to other characterisations than the mechanical one: environment, health,…

16 Premium pavements from alternative materials for European roads What is the situation? Francisco Sinis Transport Research Centre of CEDEX

17 Towards a sustainable development growing commitment to preserve the environment making it compatible with social and economic development United Nations conference (1992)  declaration of Rio (1992): Sustainable development  action programme for a worldwide environmental policy European Union  treaty of the union (art. 2): SD as ispiring objective for every member state  in 2001 was approved the strategy for sustainable development in the European Union implementation at national level

18 Alternative materials in road construction road construction  important quantities of material from natural sources  gradual degradation of the environment. adequate management of waste materials  growing concern EU waste policy  influence in the national enviromental legislation  priority of re-utilisation and recycling EN harmonised standards  references to the use of some alternative materials as aggregates in road construction

19 Recycling in Europe: OECD report 1997

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22 Changes in the European situation EU waste legislation and policy development of the construction product directive (CD 89/106/CE) generalization of recycling road by-products incorporation of new countries to the UE

23 Changes in the European situation EU waste legislation: framework legislation  waste framework directive (Dir.75/442/EEC)  hazardous waste directive (Dir. 91/689/EEC)  waste shipment regulation (C.Reg. (ECC) 259/93) waste treatment operations  incineration (C.Dir. 2000/76/EC)  landfill (C.Dir. 1999/31/EC)  recycling waste streams  different directives (Related to: waste oils, titanium dioxide, sewage sludge, PCBs, restriction of hazardous substances, mining waste, etc.)

24 Changes in the European situation EU waste new policy: Sixth environment action programme  adopted by EP&C in runs until 2012  requires ec to prepare thematic strategies on seven areas : air pollution prevention and recycling of waste (21/12/2005 com) protection and conservation of the marine environment soil sustainable use of pesticides sustainable use of resourses urban environment

25 Changes in the European situation Development of CD 89/106/CE EU construction products directive 89/106/CEE harmonized en standards  origin: EC mandates to CEN  mandatory character when referred to products and performance tests  existing on road pavement construction aggregates: EN 12620: Aggregates for concrete EN 13043: Aggregates for bituminous mixtures and surface treatments for roads, airfields and other trafficked areas. EN 13242: Aggregates for unbound and hydraulically bound material for use in civil engineering work and road construction. references to some alternative materials

26 Changes in the European situation Generalization of recycling roads by-products:  great development of recycling road pavements in the last decade  alternative to consider in pavement rehabilitation  PIARC working group hot mix asphalt recycling in plant cold in-place recycling with emulsion or foamed bitumen in situ recycling with cement  these techniques are considered as routine in many countries and are included in its specifications for highway works

27 Changes in the European situation Incorporation of new countries to the UE:  1957 TRATIES OF ROME (6): Belgium, West Germany, Luxemburg, France, Italy and the Netherlands.  1973 (6 to 9): Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom.  1981(9 to 10): Greece.  1986 (10 to 12): Spain and Portugal.  1992 THE MAASTRICHT TREATY CREATED THE EU  1995 (12 to 15): Austria, Finland and Sweden.  2004 (15 to 25): Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia

28 Situation in CEEC countries increase in mobility and goods distribution  improvement of the road network  possibilities to recycling techniques SAMARIS deliverable D15  review of the situation of road and non-road by-products recycling in ceecs  based on a similar questionnaire to that of oecd  coordinators of the works: Brno University of Technology from the Czech Republic Road and Bridge Research Institute from Poland  surveyed countries (10): Belarus (BY), Bulgaria (BG), Czech Republic (CZ), Hungary (H), Poland (PL), Romania (RO), Russia (RUS), Slovakia (SK), Slovenia (SLO) and Ukraine (UA).

29 Situation in CEEC countries Produc t Application BYBGCZHPLRORUSSKSLOUA Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) RAP/year (kt) Plant recycling % In situ recycling % Stock % Landfill % Reclaimed Concrete Pavement (RCP) RAP/year (kt) Plant recycling % In situ recycling % Stock % Landfill %

30 Situation in CEEC countries Recycling road-by products Conclusions recycling techniques are known better situation in central european countries only one recycling method in some countries often do not exist appropiate specifications road authorities are not well informed new technologies introduced by private companies (trial sections)

31 Situation in CEEC countries recycling non-road-by products CONCLUSIONS only few by-products are widely used:  blast furnace and steel slags (granular or stabilized bases, backfills and embankments)  fly ash (stabilized bases and embankments)  mining waste rock (embankments,landscaping and backfills) the use of other by-products are almost unkown. lack of funds for research in new technologies lack of interest from road authorities

32 How to improve the situation? Barriers vary from one country to other examples of barriers  no difficulties for waste disposal  environmental considerations  financial and economic reasons  lack of adequate information on long-term perfomance of alternative materials  lack of standard requirements concerning recycling  lack of knowledge of all potential applications

33 How to improve the situation? Solutions: increase and improve existing legislation:  restrictive regulations: to reduce waste production to control waste disposal  encouraging sorting, recycling and reuse include the use of alternative materials in contracts increase research and demonstration projects increase transfer of knowledge among countries SAMARIS project guide on techniques for recycling in pavement structures

34 The need for environmental assessment to promote sustainability Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus Krass Ruhr-University Bochum

35 The need for environmental assessment to promote sustainability Work Package 4, entitled “Safety and Environmental Concerns in Material Specifications”, is a part of the pavement stream and primarily concentrates on addressing safety and environmental aspects in product standards.

36 The need for environmental assessment to promote sustainability Task 4.3 is entitled “Environmental Annexes to Product Standards”. The aim of task 4.3 is to make proposals how environmental sustainability requirements of road materials could be included in the European Product Standards for road materials in form of an annex.

37 The need for environmental assessment to promote sustainability Justification is derived from the goal of the European Commission to incorporate environmental requirements into the second generation of the European Product Standards for construction materials according to the essential requirement “Hygiene, health and environment”.

38 The need for environmental assessment to promote sustainability This subject was not a part of the mandates for the different construction materials that have been standardised so far. Therefore the present first generation of European standards for road materials does not include any regulations concerning environmental specifications.

39 The need for environmental assessment to promote sustainability In relation to the construction materials, the main focus of task 4.3 was on recyclable materials and industrial by-products which can be used as aggregates for unbound and bound mixtures. That means: For natural aggregates, the environmental compatibility is given by default. There is no need for further testing.

40 The need for environmental assessment to promote sustainability Concerning industrial by-products and recycled materials, it has to be ascertained whether very different experience has been gained with the application of these materials in different European countries. In any case, the requirements for these materials do vary significantly.

41 The need for environmental assessment to promote sustainability In addition to the input from WP 4, input has been derived from other Work Packages of this project, particularly from WP 3 dealing with the assessment of alternative materials.

42 The need for environmental assessment to promote sustainability Concerning recyclable materials, it was found to be advisable to deal not only with mineral construction waste but also to deal separately with bitumen-bound material (reclaimed asphalt) and with tar-bound materials. Tar, especially coal tar and other tar distillates, was used as a binder in the past in many European countries because its hazard was not so well known at that time.

43 The need for environmental assessment to promote sustainability According to EN , reclaimed asphalt is “asphalt, not containing tar, reclaimed by milling of asphalt road layers, by crushing of plates torn up from asphalt pavements or lumps from asphalt plates and asphalt from surplus production”.

44 The need for environmental assessment to promote sustainability However, there is no European standard for tar bound reclaimed road material which can be defined as:  material containing tar, and possibly bitumen as well, that is reclaimed by milling of bound road layers, by crushing of plates torn up from bound pavements or lumps from bound plates. Due to higher air pollution by heating tar bound reclaimed road material, this material can only be used in cold mixed base layers and sub-bases with bitumen and/or cement as the binder. This application too needs further examination for environmental reasons.

45 The need for environmental assessment to promote sustainability Starting from the considerations discussed above, some typical drafts for environmental annexes to product standards have been developed, later on represented here by Sabine Boetcher.

46 The need for environmental assessment to promote sustainability Mandate M/ 366 of EC to CEN for Horizontal TC Development of horizontal standardised assessment methods for harmonised approaches relating to dangerous substances under Construction Products Directive (CPD)  Emission to indoor air, soil, surface water and ground water

47 The need for environmental assessment to promote sustainability The EC expects that the response to this mandate shall consist of a comprehensive package of technical reports and of measurement/test standards that are manageable and user-friendly for regulators, product technical specification writers, writers of ETA etc.

48 The need for environmental assessment to promote sustainability Therefore it is obvious that our proposals for annexes to the standards shall include no threshold values. That means for the time being: Provisions valid at the place of use can be used to assess the suitability of recycled or industrially produced aggregates.

49 The need for environmental assessment to promote sustainability Concerning our work, the hope remains that such environmental annexes will expand into the next generation of road product standards in order to enforce the safety and to promote the sustainability when dealing with industrial by-products and recycled materials.

50 General assessment methodology for best usage of alternative materials Denis FRANÇOIS Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées - France

51 Content Introduction Objective Approach Results Conclusions

52 Introduction Reduction of waste disposal Natural resources saving Growing pressure to use alternative materials Barriers remain Perception as « waste » Economic reasons Short to long term Engineering performancesEnvironmental effects Technical Concerns

53 Can we use this material here ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Need for an assessment methodology for the re-use of alternative materials The Assessment Methodology should be: Integrated: engineering + environment General: applicable to all alternative materials Rational: the right material in the right place Engineering assessment To fulfil the same mechanical functions But very rarely inert  React to external factors Environmental assessment Landfill/Construction: same physical & chemical laws But somewhat different conditions  Different effects

54 Toward the Methodology with WP3 Integrated: The functional principle: Whatever the material, functional properties of the road structure have to be guaranteed Some « rather known » materials for which a certain amount of knowledge was available Materials representing considerable production and stockpiles, thus stakes at European level Materials for which end users (road constructors and managers) had pressing questions Materials presenting a broad set of properties met among alternative materials Time available: 2 years Recent knowledge progress on some materials Contemporary methodological efforts in neighbouring fields General: Rational: No experimental programme, no testing Reflection on a range of materials To make the most of the available knowledge Context: Decisions: The Assessment Methodology should be: A multi-disciplinary group already aware of the recycling problematic

55 Interactions Material/Environment External factors: Wind Rainfall Wetting/Drying Cold/Hot T° Maintenance (winter, …) Traffic characteristics Dumping (chronic, accidental) … Structure reactions: Erosion Runoff Infiltration Cracking … Targets: Living organisms Surface waters  … Soil  … Groundwater  … Material reactions: Particle emission Dissolution Chemical reactions Self-binding/Stiffening …. Assessment of relevant properties A testing procedure … associated with acceptable Use scenarios - Local environmental conditions (prevailing external factors, environmental sensitivity) - The way the material is implemented (in relation to water notably) The assessment methodology: A limited set of Use-scenarios + A limited set of Tests Structure reactions: Particle transfer/Plogging Solute transfer/Precipitation Bearing cap y V° Swelling Cracking …

56 Ambition and limits of WP3 Processing Storage Transport Implementation Service Demolition Transport Storage Effect of external factors on the material: Thermal, Chemical, Physical Life Cycle Mechanical durability and Environmental acceptability of roads

57 Approach First stage: Second stage: To identify the functional properties of each Application To list the properties of each Alternative Material « Rather-known » materials The road Application: an essential element of the use-scenario (Application: a structural element of the road body) Defines the external factors to faceDefines the properties to respect Literature + Survey Third stage: Compatibility between Material properties & expected Functions The road Structure: an open multi-layer system (Influence on not inert materials) Whatever the material, functional properties have to be guaranteed

58 Road Structure and Applications Typical road structure (from COST 337 and FHWA) : 5 applications V II Base V III Sub-base I Surface IV Subgrade V V V Shoulders, landscaping, embankments The way the material can be implemented: 11 Application cases ApplicationsCases UnboundBitumen boundCement bound II-a*I-bI-c IIII-aII-bII-c IIIIII-a-III-c IVIV-a-IV-c VV-a-- … depends on Material properties, determines Interactions with the environment

59 Materials and Properties Properties: 8 Materials (representative of: stockpiles, uses, issues) Particle size Stiffening pot. Swelling pot. Petrography Permeability Solubility pot. …. - Road crushed concrete - Building demolition crushed concrete - Coal fly ash - Basic oxygen furnace slag (LD) - Electric arc furnace slag - Crystallized blast furnace slag - Vitrified blast furnace slag - MSWI bottom ash Road Building Indus. By- prod. Residue Compilation of materials’ properties: Material properties sheets - International references - National literature reviews and databases - Samaris WP6 (Recycling Techniques across Europe) - Working group own experience

60 Application-Material Table Ia b c IIa b c IIIa c IVa c Va Ass. t P. re 3 Ass. t P. re 1 Ass. t P. re 4 Ass. t P. re 6 Ass. t P. re 7 Ass. t P. re 2 Ass. t P. re 8 Ass. t P. re 5 El. ts Use Scenario I El. ts Use Scenario II El. ts Use Scenario III El. ts Use Scenario IV El. ts Use Scenario V 8 Materials: Properties (phys., chim.) Applications cases : Functions Unadvisable / Possible use (+/- Conditions) Tests

61 Progression of WP3 Review of the contemporary situation The way the 8 materials are actually used and tested International developments in alternative materials assessment (tests, methods) at research and standardisation level Development of the assessment methodology (Materials & Properties) x (Applications & Functions) = Methodological proposal Relevance of pre-existing protocols Need for test developments Material for the method Deliverable 9 Development of a proposal for improving the integrated assessment of (some) alternative materials for their rational use in road construction Task 1 Task 2 Deliverable 4 Deliverable 16

62 The 8 Materials in different states Status: Mostly considered through the European screen (classification and rules for wastes) – Importance of the European example Market: Shortage of supply sometimes (Coal fa, CBF slag, VBF slag, EAF slag) - Importation Answers to a questionnaire: A – DK – E – F – SLO – S – NL MaterialRoad usesProduced in n states Coal faAll applications (I to V)6 MSWI baApp° V, subgrade, sub-base7 BDC concreteRoad base, sub-base6 RC concreteRoad base3 BOFs, EAFs, CBFs, VBFsVaries greatly between states4,4,4,5 Mat. propertiesNational documentsExamples EngineeringTechnical ones mainly Few Management ones Coal fa, VBFs MSWIba, BDcc, Rcc (1) EnvironmentalGreat lackBOFs, EAFs, CBFs, VBFs (0) Fields: Characterisation & use (+), Production (-) – Downstream situation of road use Variety of states’ toolboxes – Beneficial experience to others Justification for an European synthesis attempt

63 Road applications’ functions Answers to a questionnaire: A – D – DK – F – S Applications: linked to a range of functions rather than a single one ApplicationsMain functions…… but also I - Surface courseResistance to traffic stresses, Traffic safety, Comfort, Resistance to erosion* Resistance to vertical load, Prevention of water infiltration II - Road baseResistance to vertical load, Resistance to traffic stresses, Load distribution, Stiffness, Anti-frost Anti-frost III - Sub-baseResistance to vertical load, DrainageStiffness, Anti-frost, Anti-capillary rise IV - SubgradeResistance to vertical load V - Should. Lands. Emb. Drainage, Resistance to erosion Conclusions complemented with a literature review To set up Application-Material Table: 

64 Suitability matrix: Elt s of Use Scenarios The Rule: 1 major drawback sufficient to advise against an Un-appropriate application (U-AC) (8 x 11) AC - 24 U-AC = 64 P-AC Eng. U-AC : 21 Env. U-AC : 1 Eng.-Env. U-AC : 2 Un-appropriate AC Possible AC P P P P P P P P

65 Material Ass t Procedures: BDcc Case Engineering Prop. Branches Leaching Prop. Branches Ass. t P. re 3

66 M.A.P.: Engineering P. ies Branches Building Demolition crushed concrete

67 M.A.P.: Leaching P. ies Branches BD crushed concreteEAF slagMSWI bottom ash

68 Toward a General Implementation MSWIba for III-a Rcc for II-c BOFs for I-b 64 P-AC

69 Test Methods for Engineering P ies 31 Tests for 64 P-AC EN standards No EN  National standards RPD  routine ? PER  standard ?

70 Main Cases MC 1 MC 2 MC 4 MC 5 MC 6 MC 7 MC 8 MC 3 Pre-testing 8 MC

71 Main Cases: Pre-testing MC 6 MC 7MC 3 Toward 9 Applications : - Surface course (a ; b ; c) - Base (a ; b ; c) - Sub-base (a ; c) - Subgrade (a) For 5 Materials: - MSWI bottom ash - Building DC concrete - Road C concrete - BOF slag - Crystallized BF slag

72 Main Cases: MC3 MC 3 Leaching Prop. Branches Toward 5 Applications : - Surface course (b ; c) - Base (b ; c) - Sub-base (c) For 6 Materials: - Coal fly ash - Building DC concrete - Road C concrete - BOF slag - EAF slag - Crystallized BF slag

73 Main Cases: MC6 & MC7 MC 6 MC 7 Leaching Prop. Branches Toward 5 Applications : - Surface course (a) - Base (a) - Sub-base (a) - Subgrade (a) - Embankments, shoulders… (a) For 6 Materials: - MSWI bottom ash - Building DC concrete - Road C concrete - BOF slag - EAF slag - Crystallized BF slag

74 Conclusions The Application: a decisive element of the use-scenario Engineering aspect: material properties  application functions Leaching aspect: form of the material (granular/bound, exposure)  leaching properties Eco-toxicity aspect: lack of data, difficulty to select among tests  at that stage difficulty to include natural environment sensitivity in the use-scenario Critical analysis of: Mechanical tests  clarification (relevance) Suitability  rationalization of the engineering approach: some practices should be avoided & management of materials  specific needs: engineering, leaching, eco-toxicity assessment

75 Conclusions Development of an integrated, rational, general assessment methodology: Iterative process Field/Lab.  « Rather known » materials = an implicit first experience feed back A first step: make the most of the available knowledge Multi-disciplinary approach  put into practice in SAMARIS WP3 Complicated (?): 1 tree: 8 materials, 64 cases, 31 tests  simplification (MC ?) Extension to a wider range of materials with additional properties

76 Acknoledgements The audience The Partners of SAMARIS WP 3: Danish Road Institute Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute - VTI Danish Hydraulic Institute Netherlands Energy Research Foundation - ECN French National School of Public Works - ENTPE Recycled Materials Resource Center (University of New- Hampshire)

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78 Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment Hans A. van der Sloot ECN - Environmental Risk Assessment Ole Hjelmar DHI Water & Environment

79 Construction Products Directive Essential Requirement No3 on Health & Environment  Release of Dangerous substances Mandate accepted by Standing Committee Construction on October 2004 and subsequently issued by EU DG TREN to CEN in early 2005 BT176 prepared for a new CEN TC 351 with a first meeting of CEN TC 351 in April 2006 at Malta Start of the horizontal standardisation work on:  Sampling  Indoor air  Impact to soil and groundwater relevant for road construction

80 Scenario approach in judging impact APPLICABLE TO: CONSTRUCT. MATERIALS, AGGREGATES SOIL, SLUDGE, SEDIMENT, WASTE, etc Lab, lysimeter, field data collection, data management, data formatting, storage and retrieval Problem definition and test selection pH, L/S & time dependence - redox, DOC, EC, ANC Release with time GranularMonolithic Percolation related Surface area Source term description Impact evaluation subsoil and groundwater Judgement and decision making; QC; Regulatory aspects; Treatment, Utilization, Disposal Expert system /database Data integration between fields and tests, modeling and verification against field data Physical, chemical, biological properties Management Scenario Description – configuration, design specifications, infiltration, climate EN 12920

81 Judgement of the application of materials Quality control of products Product improvement Limit values Relation lab-practice (Scenarios) Modelling Product modification Measurement for verification Efficient measurements Precision measurement data Characterisation leaching tests (identification of mechanisms and processes) Accessibility of data: data base/expert system Development of criteria for regulation Regulation Leaching tests in Environmental judgement

82 Conformity assessment in the CPD WT-Products Non WT-Products Assessment of construction products in view of CPD/ER No. 3 Conformity Evaluation acc. to prescribed Conformity System FT-Products WFT-Products Non WT-Products Conventionally Approved Materials CE -marking WT = Without testing WFT = Without further testing FT= Further testing Main aim: avoid unnecessary testing and focus on the key issues

83 Basic characterisation tests TANK LEACH TEST (MONOLITH) and COMPACTED GRANULAR LEACH TEST. PERCOLATION LEACHING TEST (PrEN 14405) Granular materials Monolithic materials or pH DEPENDENCE TEST : BATCH MODE ANC prEn or COMPUTER CONTROLLED or pH DEPENDENCE TEST : BATCH MODE ANC prEn or COMPUTER CONTROLLED CEN/TC 292 EN Chemical speciation aspects Time dependent release

84 Processes in a Road Scenario Road shoulder, soil Road stabilisation material (e.g. alternative construction material) Precipitation Physical factors: Permeability Particle size Porosity Chemical factors: pH Organic matter Buffer capacity Redox Chemical form (speciation) Soluble salts Transport mechanisms: Surface run-off Percolation Chemical mechanisms: Solubility control Adsorption Dispersion Groundwater flow Approach proposed in CPD to assess impact and to derive criteria similar to scenario approach in EU LFD Annex II

85 Modelling release by percolation 60 days Construction material Soil Point of compliance Interface reactions pH Al Na SO4 Mg Ca Cl H2CO3 Pb Fe Ferri- hydrite Al solid Calcite Portlandite iterations Cu H2CO3 solid Mg Brucite Si Tenorite Cr Ettringite Cu soli d Pb soli d

86 Conclusions Too simple approaches for addressing the complex issue of environmental impact evaluation in the long term leads to poor management decisions A straightforward, scientifically sound and yet flexible framework covering many materials in various environmental settings is available (methodology approach versus material approach) A limited number of leaching tests can provide the crucial answers needed to assess long-term impact from a wide range of materials in a wide range of scenarios and life cycle stages For road materials this implies a pH dependence test and a column test for characterisation and a batch test for compliance The approach presented for inorganic contaminants is equally applicable for organic contaminants as well as for radionuclides, whenever relevant

87 Conclusions The here proposed hierarchy in testing provides the necessary detail required by regulators and developers of treatment techniques, while at the same time it provides for cost effective compliance and QC testing for industry Chemical speciation using mineral solubility, sorption on mineral surfaces and interaction with dissolved and particulate organic matter provides identification of release controlling factors similar among widely different materials to solve problems of undesired release from materials Contrary to the current situation in the CPD recycling and "end of life" aspects of road construction materials should be considered under ER3 to ensure sustainability Development of a European database/expert system for leaching and composition data to disclose inaccessible information from public domain research and avoid unnecessary duplication of work

88 Relevant Information HOW TO JUDGE RELEASE OF DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES FROM CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS TO SOIL AND GROUNDWATER Topic 1 - Soil and groundwater impact Topic 2 - Hierarchy in testing: Characterisation, initial type testing, further testing and selection of tests in specific stages of material judgement Topic 3 – Proposal for reference to ER 3 aspects in product standards and in CE marking Dijkstra, van der Sloot, Spanka, ThielenECN-C Leaching background CEN Construction and CEN Environment Workshop - Coimbra, Portugal (Sept 2003) asp LeachXS Database/expert system for environmental impact evaluation:

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90 Task 4.3: Prototype environmental annex to product standard Dipl.-Ing. S. Boetcher Ruhr-University Bochum

91 Proceeding Activities on this task were subdivided into four steps: (1)Identification of relevant road materials (2)Identification of appropriate European Product Standards (3)Identification of hazardous components and appropriate test methods (4)Formulation of drafts

92 Step 1 – Relevant road materials Differentiation between  industrial by-products e.g. municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and  recycled materials e.g. crushed mineral construction waste Description of the relevant materials together with the potential applications in road structure

93 Step 1 – Relevant road materials

94 Industrial by-productAbbreviation 1Crystallised (or air-cooled) blast furnace slagCBF slag 2Vitrified (or granulated) blast furnace slagVBF slag 3Basic oxygen steel slagBOF slag 4Electric arc furnace slagEAF slag 5Coal fly ashCFA 6Boiler slagBS 7Fly ash from lignite combustionFALC 8Municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ashMSWIBA

95 Step 1 – Relevant road materials Recycled materialsAbbreviation 1Crushed mineral construction waste CMCW 2Reclaimed asphalt pavementRA 3Tar-bound reclaimed road materialTB

96 Step 2 – Identification of appropriate European Product Standards Drafts to these selected typical standards for aggregates and their bituminous mixtures: hEN hEN hEN Drafts to these selected typical standards for unbound and hydraulically bound materials : hEN EN 13285

97 Step 3 – Identification of hazardous components and appropriate test methods Scepticism about application of industrial by-products and recycled materials because of a potential danger less for the workers during the processing but especially for soil and groundwater in consequence of leaching Example: Decisive hazardous characteristics for MSWIBA pH-value Chromium VI El. conductivity Chromium tot. Chloride Nickel Sulphate Copper Cyanide (e. p.) Zinc DOCArsenic AluminiumAntimony MolybdenumLead Cadmium

98 Step 3 – Identification of hazardous components and appropriate test methods Example: Decisive hazardous characteristics for RA: Sulphur Phenol index PAH (EPA) Further potential hazard: Tar Detection of PAH (proposal WP 4)

99 Step 4: Drafts of annexes to product standards Environmental Annex to EN “Aggregates for bituminous mixtures and surface treatments for roads, airfields and other trafficked areas” (normative) With reference to the essential requirement “Hygiene, health and environment” of the Construction Product Directive (CPD) aggregates have to comply with the following specifications. For natural aggregates the environmental compatibility is on principle given. There is no need for further testing. The same can be assumed for boiler slag (BS). For recycled aggregates and industrially produced aggregates the hazardous characteristics according to table 1 and table 2 have to be determined. Example 1:

100 Hazardous characteristics to determine for crushed mineral construction waste Kind of determinationHazardous characteristicCMCW Leaching test pH − value(X) El. conductivity(X) ChlorideX SulphateX Chromium VIX Content by mass EOXX Hydrocarbons 1) X PAH (EPA)X PCDD 2) X PCB 2) X 1) only hydrocarbons not originated from bitumen 2) only if susceptible (X) values to determine only for information

101 Hazardous characteristics for industrially produced aggregates to determine within a leaching test Hazardous characteristic CBF slagVBF slagBOF slagEAF slag CFA pH − value(X) El. conductivity(X) SulphateXXX VanadiumXXX Chromium tot.XXX ArsenicX CadmiumX The leaching test has to be carried out according to EN The content of PAH has to be determined according to …. Provisions valid at the place of use can be used to assess the suitability of recycled or industrially produced aggregates.

102 Step 4: Drafts of annexes to product standards Environmental Annex to EN “Bituminous mixtures – Material specifications – Part 8: Reclaimed asphalt” (normative) With reference to the essential requirement “Hygiene, health and environment” of the Construction Product Directive (CPD) aggregates have to comply with the following specifications. For proving the sole existence of bitumen as binder in the reclaimed asphalt information about the construction of the road can be applied, i. e. files or documentation of the construction time, or former results of quality control. In case of doubts the content of PAH (EPA) shall be determined according to … and the phenol index after a leaching test according to EN Example 2: hEN

103 Step 4: Drafts of annexes to product standards Environmental Annex to EN “Bituminous mixtures – Material specifications – Part 8: Reclaimed asphalt” (normative) If a content of 30 mg PAH/kg of reclaimed asphalt and a phenol index of 0,1 mg/l is not exceeded, it can be assumed that the reclaimed asphalt doesn’t contain tar. In case of doubts the content of sulphur shall be determined and declared according to … Example 2:

104 Step 4: Drafts of annexes to product standards Handling tar-bound reclaimed road material: No present European standard! Content of PAH > 30 mg/kg TB Leave material in the road Re-use in cold mixtures e. g. with bitumen emulsion or foamed bitumen and/ or cement as binder Disposal

105

106 Health, Safety, Environmental assessment Procedures for identifying hazardous component materials for asphalt

107 Project team Virginie Mouillet Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chausées France Cliff Nicholls & Piouslin Samuel Transport Research Laboratory UK François Deygout & Burgard Koenders France

108 Interest in recycling Recycling in the asphalt industry since 1970s Proper recycling of road materials  with or without change in function Use of initially non-road materials  e.g. demolition concrete, tyres, glass, furnace slag, fly ashes Sustainable development: whole life cycle (EAPA)  Health, safety, environment: now and in the future  Optimising the use of natural resources Potential economic incentives to recycle/re-use

109 Risk assessment Procedures to deal with less ‘well-controlled’ materials than standard materials Identification of hazardous components Nature and concentration Degree of exposure (dose and duration) Occupational exposure to workers, public Impact on air, water and soil Analyses and risk assessment before starting recycling work Circumstances that influence the risk

110 Health, Safety, Environment Investigations:  Presence of (coal) tar  Presence of sulphur  Dust derived from pulverisation during milling off and crushing  Fumes arising from heating during mixing  Spontaneous ignition during heating  Leaching (once in place)  Reaction to fire in tunnels

111 Presence of coal tar in road pavements Rather extensive use of coal tar until the 1980s High amounts of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons 16 PAHs are listed as priority pollutants (EPA list)  some are well-known for their carcinogenic properties  in particular Benzo(a)Pyrene  key: determination of PAH Limits in European countries are different

112 Screening methods for PAH PAK-marker spray Stain test with toluene Visual detection: minimum 5%w of coal tar present in binder Semi-quantitative method: Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) using fluorescence under UV light Quantitative methods: vacuum sublimation, HPLC, GC-MS

113 Research: fast and reliable method LCPC - test procedure within 6 hours  Recovered binders on TLC plate (separation)  Precise quantification of individual PAHs by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Detection limits  2%w coal tar present in the binder  (based on 5%w of binder in the asphalt mixture) : about 260 mg PAHs / kg of Reclaimed Asphalt about 8 mg BaP / kg of Reclaimed Asphalt

114 Presence of sulphur Sulphur as a substantial part of the asphalt mixture was used in road construction in 1970s Sulphur is present in bitumen – however, as part of various molecular structures LCPC - test method for total sulphur content in binder: emulsification and ICP-AES analysis Further study:  How sulphur present?  Hazard  Risk assessment

115 Airborne particulates Air sampling Dustiness Particle sizes Shell Global Solutions study

116 Classification of airborne particulates The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Inhalable: respiratory tract Thoracic: lung airways Respirable: gas-exchange region ACGIH/ISO/CEN health related sampling conventions, for Europe: EN 481 PM100 PM10 PM5 PM2.5

117 Physical, chemical analyses Total PM and benzene soluble matter PAH in airborne particles Volatile organic compounds Fibres Silica Heavy metals Halogens, TOC, PAH in leachate Gravimetry Microscopy HPLC, GC X ray diffraction ICP X ray fluorescence

118 Spontaneous ignition TRL study Screening  Direct combustion test  Calorific value testing  Microwave tests Quantitative detection  Combustion susceptibility  Ramped basket test  Aerated powder test

119 Spontaneous ignition TRL study: ramped basket test indication of self heating

120 Final comments Finding a potential hazard should not necessarily mean that the relevant component material cannot be used in asphalt Depending on the nature and extent of the hazard, the appropriate actions need to be defined: risk management

121

122 Reaction to Fire Performance of Pavement Materials Dr. Sarah Colwell BRE

123 Background Reaction to Fire  contribution to the fire scenario. An essential requirement under the CPD Classification - EN : 2002

124 Stage One  Survey of MS Regulators and interested parties  Incidents involving pavement fires  Review Reaction to Fire test methods available

125 Findings from Stage One No specific Regulations or requirements. Some requirements for tunnel lining materials. Many expressed an ongoing interest in the area. A review of incidents did not identify pavement material as adding a significant hazard to this type of incident. Heat fluxes typically twice standard RTF tests.

126 Stage Two Investigate the response of typical pavement material to :  EN ISO (Current CPD flooring fire test)  ISO (Cone Calorimeter test)

127 Pavement Material Three examples of road pavement materials were identified for investigation, all were manufactured with relatively high levels of organic binder. 60/20 Porous Asphalt Mastic Asphalt Dense Bitumen Macadam

128 Flooring Test - EN ISO Measurements:  Flame spread  Smoke Findings:  No sustained ignition outside measuring zone  No sustained flame spread outside measuring zone  No differentiation of product types

129 Cone Calorimeter – ISO Measurements: Heat Release Rate Smoke Mass loss Irradiance levels: 35 and 50 kW/m 2 Findings: Critical Flux range kW/m 2 Differentiation based on THR - 24/54/87 (PA/MA/DBM) MJ/m 2

130 Summary of Findings (1) The cone calorimeter test can discriminate between pavement materials. Since EN is primarily reliant upon EN ISO to provide discrimination between classes B fl and D fl all three pavement materials have the potential to achieve at least a B fl classification.

131 Summary of Findings (2) The critical flux values for the pavement materials are typically higher than other flammable materials present in a road vehicle. In a confined area such as a road tunnel, the heat flux radiated back from the hot smoke layer and the tunnel walls would higher than in an open environment. The data from this study could enhance current modelling studies of fire and smoke issues in transport infrastructure scenarios such as tunnels.

132 Part 2 : Mechanical Assessment Towards functional specification irrespective of type of material (Modelling) Erik Nielsen Danish Road Institute

133 Mechanical assessment for models Towards functional specifications Alternative or recycled materials Virgin materials Functional engineering properties Empirical and rheological models

134 Mechanical assessment Modelling permanent deformation Unbound granular materials Bituminous materials Deliverable 27 Deliverable 28

135 Presentations Unbound granular materials  Pierre Hornych, LCPC, France Bituminous materials  Ronald Blab, TU Vienna, Austria Implication for standardisation  Cliff Nichols, TRL, United Kingdom

136 Implications of asphalt deformation results for Standardisation Dr Cliff Nicholls TRL, UK, & CEN TC227/WG1/TG2

137 Contents Current position of CEN standards  EN  EN Test Results Obtained  Wheel tracking  Cyclic compression Possible Developments Conclusions

138 Current Position of Standards Asphalt “package” to be implemented in 2008 Test methods, EN 12697, already published Material specification and quality documents, EN 13108, to be published in 2006 CEN Marking  Will be required to sell asphalt  Single test method for each situation  Multiple tests only permitted if identical  Equivalence not assumed for adjacent situations  Ideally most appropriate test selected

139 Current Position of Standards EN : Wheel tracking  Large size devices  Extra large devices  Small size devices, Procedure A in air  Small size devices, Procedure B in air  Small size devices, Procedure B in water EN : Cyclic compression test  Test method A — Uniaxial cycling compression test with confinement  Test method B — Triaxial cyclic compression test

140 Current Position of Standards EN , Asphalt concrete EN , Asphalt concrete for very thin layers EN , Soft asphalt EN , Hot rolled asphalt EN , Stone mastic asphalt EN , Mastic asphalt EN , Porous asphalt EN , Reclaimed asphalt EN , Type testing of asphalt mixes EN , Factory production control

141 Current Position of Standards Ref.DeviceCond. Temp. o C Test duration cycles EN D.1.2Small device, procedure AAir — X — D.1.3Small device, procedure AAir — X — D.1.4Small device, procedure BAir X — X D.1.5Small device, procedure BAir X — X D.1.6Small device, procedure BAir X — X D.1.7Large deviceAir X — X D.1.8Large deviceAir603000X —— D.1.9Large deviceAir X — X D.1.10Large deviceAir X — X EN Test conditions for wheel-tracking test

142 Current Position of Standards Ref.Course Cond. temp. Test temp. Confining stress Axial loadFrequencyPulse D.2.1Surface15 °C50 °C150 kPa300 kPa3 HzHaversine D.2.2Surface15 °C50 °C150 kPa300 kPa1 s/1 sBlock D.2.3 Base & binder 15 °C40 °C50 MPa200 kPa3 HzHaversine D.2.4 Base & binder 15 °C40 °C50 MPa200 kPa1 s/1 sBlock EN Test conditions for cyclic compression test (for EN only)

143 Test Results Obtained 50 o C / 60 o C Large SizeSmall Size in airSmall Size in water Rutting (%) Slope (mm/10 ³ cycles) Rutting (%) Slope (mm/10 ³ cycles) Rutting (%) LAVOC Surface6,0 / 7,6 0,102 / 0,242 6,3 / 14,4 0,200 / 1,116 11,2/35,5 Up. Base3,0 / 5,0 0,036 / 0,061 3,0 / 4,6 0,084 / 0,060 3,4 / 3,3 Low. Base – 0,042 / 0,003 0,8 / 2,7 0,016 / 0,002 2,0 / 1,8 DRI Surface4,0 / 4,2 0,111 / 0,125 11,9/21,9 3,11 * / 16,75 * 144*/836* Binder10,5/16,2 0,092 / 0,360 5,2 / 16,9 0,174 / 0,772 7,5 / 24,0 * Calculated value because deformation reached 20 mm before cycles

144 Test Results Obtained Unconfined Strain after 3600 cycles Triaxial Strain after o 50 o 40 o 50 o C LAVOC Surface1,6 %6,6 % * – 2,1 % Upper base0,78 %1,6 %0,88 % – DRI Surface12 % *45 % *2,6 %12 % Binder1,7 %2,5 %1,5 % – * Calculated value because strain too great before 3600 cycles on one or more samples

145 Test Results Obtained 50 o 60 o C SlopeRuttingSlopeRutting LAVOCSurface0,510,560,220,41 Upper base0,430,891,021,40 Lower base2,630,391,501,48 DRISurface0,040,080,010,03 Binder0,530,690,470,70 Ratio of Small Size in air to Small Size in water Ratios (ex. DRI surface course)  SS air/SS water from 0,22 to 2,63  SS water/SS air from 0,38 to 4,61 Effect of water  Curing to give better result  Stripping to give worse result

146 Test Results Obtained Ratio of inverse of result to inverse of “best” result for test method

147 Test Results Obtained Previous studies found rough equivalence Large size device results counter to small size device results  DRI surface course mixture good deformation resistance rather than bad  Both tests in specifications Cyclic compression support small size devices

148 Test Results Obtained Factors affecting deformation resistance  the angularity of the aggregate particles  the frictional properties of the aggregates  the grading of the aggregate  the voids content of the mixture  the binder content of the mixture  the viscosity of the binder Which explain different rankings?

149 Possible Developments Research Correlate test results with site experience  Difficult  The ideal – if good correlation found Identify test parameters causing differences  Even more difficult  Relate differences to physical situations Both options expensive  Financially  In time

150 Possible Developments Standards Administratively acceptable  One situation, one test Intellectually unacceptable  Inconsistent with differences Change possible when know truth  No point beforehand

151 Conclusions Test results conflict Current Standards do not allow conflict  EN defines single method  Choice of method not rational Research needed  Correlate test results with site experience  Identify relevant tests for each situation Possible revisions needed to parts of EN and EN 12697

152 Premium pavements from alternative materials for European roads. Digests on recycling techniques General presentation of the Technical guide Francisco Sinis Transport Research Centre of CEDEX

153 WP6: Techniques for recycling Objective  To provide up-dated information and recommendations about techniques and applications of recycling Partners involved  CEDEX (Spain)Francisco Sinis  EUROVIA (France)Samir Soliman and Ivan Drouadaine  TU Brno (Czech Republic) Jan Kudrna and Michal Varaus  IBDIM (Poland)Dariusz Sybilski and Krzystof Mirsky

154 WP6: Techniques for recycling Description of tasks Task 6.1 Production of a technical guide on techniques of recycling Task 6.2 Review of the situation in CEE countries about recycling

155 WP6: Techniques for recycling Deliverables produced Deliverable 5 (March 2004) Report on literature review on recycling of by-products in road construction in Europe Deliverable 12 (July 2004) Recommendations for mixing plants for recycling works Deliverable 15 (September 2004) Review of the state of art in road and other industry by-product use in road construction and rehabilitation in the central and eastern countries Deliverable 29 (December 2005) Guide in techniques for recycling in pavement structures

156 The guide on techniques for recycling in pavement structures

157 PARTNERS INVOLVED authors :  Cedex (Spain) with the collaboration of Eurovia (France) AND TUBrno (Czech Republic) contribution to Chapter 5 (Technical Standards, Specifications or Guidelines by Country”):  DRI (Denmark) - IBIDM (Poland)  RUB (Germany) - EPFL (Switzerland)  BAST (Germany) - TRL (United Kingdom)  ECN (The Netherlands)- ZAG (Slovenia)

158 Work done for the elaboration of the guide Starting point Deliverable D5: ”Literature review of recycling of by- products in road construction in Europe”  literature analysis  first drafts of digests of technical information by by- product  format for a technical guide Deliverable D12: “Recommendations for mixing plants for recycling works”

159 Work done for the elaboration of the guide Internal information taken into account Deliverable D4: ”Existing specific national regulations applied to material recycling” Deliverable D7: “State of the art for test methods to detect hazardous components in road materials for recycling” Deliverable D16: “Methodology for assessing alternative materials for road construction” Deliverable D24: “Environmental annexes to road product standards”

160 Structure of the guide eleven digests of technical information  one by material for every material the information has been mostly structured in the following chapters 1.Origin 2.Recycling 3.Uses in road construction 4.Environmental issues 5.Technical standards, specifications or guidelines by country 6.Technical references

161 Alternative materials considered

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163

164

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166

167 materials from asphalt pavement recycling  have not been included in the guide because its recycling techniques have been deeply covered by PIARC working groups materials from concrete pavement recycling  have been incorporated under the “building demolished by-products” digest

168 Structure of the guide Recycling properties of the waste material or by-product  physical  chemical recycling process  description  quality control of the process properties of the recycled material  physical  chemical

169 Structure of the guide Uses in road construction Uses Special considerations on design and construction Quality control of the construction process Examples or references of uses

170 Summary of used by-products in road construction

171 Colliery spoil / mining waste rocks

172 Colliery spoil / mining waste rocks Origin It is referred for this digest to : By-products originated in the exploitation of coal and anthracite shafts and mines, as well as those resulting from the coal wash activities. mine spoils : Waste material from exploitation of shafts and mines (basically fitting rocks from coal layers: carbonaceous shale and sandstones) (10%) washery spoils : Waste material obtained after coal wash (90%) dump spoils the result of stocking MS and WS  unburnt: Resulting from the  burnt: The result of the auto-combustion of the coal included in the unburnt spoils. Reddish colour and higher strength

173 Colliery spoil / mining waste rocks Recycling. Waste material PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A SAMPLE OF COLLIERY SPOIL (<50mm) (ESTERAS, S.et al..1994)

174 Colliery spoil / mining waste rocks Recycling. Waste material CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COLLIERY SPOILS IN THE UK (SHERWOOD,P..2001)

175 Colliery spoil / mining waste rocks Recycling process no direct use in road construction  abundance of very thick sizes recycling process depends of the final use  general Exclude bigger sizes by sieving  washery spoils for embankments  all-in-aggregates from dumping as aggregates Crushing and grading to fulfil specifications  unburnt spoils in subgrades Elimination of particles inferior to 20 mm

176 Colliery spoil / mining waste rocks Recycling. Recycled material PROPERTIES OF RECYCLED BURNT AND UNBURNT SPOILS (ESTERAS,S. et al..1994)

177 Colliery spoil / mining waste rocks Uses in road construction USES OF COLLIERY SPOIL IN THE UK (SHERDWOOD, P..2001)

178 Colliery spoil / mining waste rocks Uses in road construction Embankments, capping layers and fills Spain  Unburnt spoils can be used in embankments Care in grading curve: avoid big sizes and reduce fine portion  Burnt spoils can be used in sub-bases construction United Kingdom  A great variety of performances  Unburnt spoils are permitted for embankments and as fill material  Burnt spoils are permitted as fill material and capping material provided it meets the requirements of SHW. They are vulnerable to freezing temperature France  Burnt spoils have been mainly used in subgrades

179 Colliery spoil / mining waste rocks Uses in road construction Granular bases and subbases in the UK  SHW (1998): Difficult for burnt spoils to fulfil the requirements for unbound sub-bases (durability) in Spain  Unburnt spoils: sub-bases for light traffic situations  Burnt spoils may be used as granular sub-base for all level of traffic hydraulic bound sub-bases in the UK  SHW permitted the use of both as aggregate in CB SB M

180 Colliery spoil / mining waste rocks Environmental issues advantages  decrease of stoked volumes and releases occupied land  saving of natural aggregates disadvantages  attention to the potential of spontaneous fire  washery spoils may contain sulphates It should be required: special cements detailed analysis of potential lixiviate production  in the proximities of concrete structures a control of the concentration of sulphates in leaching must take place

181 Colliery spoil / mining waste rocks Technical standards, specifications or guidelines by country European Union Czech Republic France Germany Poland Spain United kingdom

182 Colliery spoil / mining waste rocks Technical standards, specifications or guidelines by country Germany  TL WB-StB 95. Technical Terms of Delivery for Colliery Spoils as Construction Material in Road and Earthwork Construction  RuA-StB 01. Guidelines for the environmentally compatible use of industrial by-products and RC building materials in road construction  Bulletin for use of mineral construction materials from mining in road construction and for earthworks

183 Colliery spoil / mining waste rocks Tec h nical standards, specifications or guidelines by country United Kingdom  SHW Clause 601. Classification, Definitions and Uses of Earthworks Materials. Specification for Highway Works (Highways Agency)  AggRegain Spicifier. WRAP  ISBN Controlling the Environmental Effects of Recycled and Secondary Aggregates Production: Good Practice Guidance. ODPM ISBN

184 Thank you for your attention!

185 Techniques for recycling S. Soliman, I. Drouadaine EUROVIA MANAGEMENT (FRANCE)

186 SAMARIS FINAL SEMINAR EUROVIA is a VINCI subsidiary:  A world leader in roadworks  French Leader in road natural aggregate  European leader in recycling materials  5.3 billion euros net sales  A network operating in 17 countries  4 business lines: Roadworks Industries and materials Quality of life and environment Services

187 SAMARIS final seminar Industries & Materials 25% 19% Quality of life & Environment Services 48% Roadworks 8% Lines of Business

188 Industries & Materials Quarries(47Mt), binder plants(0.43Mt), asphalt plants(23Mt) Recycling and re-use platforms (105 facilities-4.5Mt)  Waste from public works & civil engineering (e.g. concrete, mixes) (~ 1.3 Mt).  Municipal waste incineration bottom ash (0.7 Mt).  Blast furnace slag, black coal shale (1.8 Mt).  Fly ash & other industrial by-products (0.5 Mt).

189 WP6-1 : Elaboration of a technical guide on recycling techniques CEDEX (Spain) - LeaderFrancisco Sinis EUROVIA (France)Samir Soliman Ivan Drouadaine TURBrno (Czech Republic)Jan Kudrna Michal Varaus IBDIM (Poland)Dariusz Sybilski Krzystof Mirski WP6 : Techniques for recycling

190 SAMARIS final seminar Task 6.1: Elaboration of a technical guide on recycling techniques The task was to provide: -Report on literature review on recycling of by-products in road construction in Europe (D5) -recommendations for the plants (D12) -technical guide on techniques of recycling (D29)

191 SAMARIS final seminar Three by-products: 1.Building, civil engineering and roadway demolition materials 2.Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash 3.Crystallized blast furnace slag

192 SAMARIS final seminar Building, civil engineering and roadway demolition materials All countries are concerned as producer/user < 5% of total aggregates consumption  Heterogeneous situation in EU  Accuracy of data collected ?  Tonnage Wide range of uses Considered as inert

193 SAMARIS final seminar Mobile recycling installation Hopper and crusher Oberband Screening

194 SAMARIS final seminar Example of fixed recycling installation Iron HopperCrusher 6/14 0/20 20/60 Screen 0/6 Screen overband Hand sorting Control station Hopper overband Crusher

195 SAMARIS final seminar Fixed recycling installation Recycling aggregate from concrete

196 SAMARIS final seminar Demolition materials Origin  Sorting Building demolition Plaster, timber, light mat… Road demolition Soil, clay… USES Unbound, treated with hydraulic or bitumen binder Pre-normatives European specifications are completed Other specificities High pH Higher compaction energy needed Prevent contact with sulphate sources

197 SAMARIS final seminar Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash Most countries are concerned as producers 3 countries are involved  Experimental stage in others Very low quantity / aggregate market High quantity / waste disposal Elaboration process needed Environmental specificity

198 SAMARIS FINAL SEMINAR Example of elaboration process - Specific unit - Waterproof area - Covered stocks Trommel NFS Hand sorting Secondary iron 0/30 Hopper >200 mm Unburned Primary Iron 30/200 Crusher Wind tunnel OB 8/12 Crible 0/30 Non ferrous metal Screen 12/30 OB 0/8 8/30 Elaborated Bottom ash MSWI BA

199 SAMARIS final seminar Bottom ash elaboration installation Recycling aggregate from MSWI BA

200 SAMARIS final seminar Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash:  Origin  separate from incineration gas treatment residues  Sorting: metals (Fe, non ferrous), unburned  Weathering: carbonatation of lime, pH decrease, monitoring  Moisture content management Uses:  Mainly backfill  Road foundation layer  Treatment with hydraulic or foam bitumen  Restricted area

201 SAMARIS final seminar Aggregates standard and bottom ash Pre-normative European specifications are being discussed for future implementation in aggregates standard : Al content Loss of ignition Soundness Environmental issues National documents are applied Control on product use batch leaching test Defined protection area CEN dangerous substances mandate should provide harmonized specifications

202 SAMARIS final seminar Cold mixing plant for lime, hydraulic binder, emulsion and foam bitumen treatments 10/14 4/10 0/4 Cement or lime silo Adhesive Agent Foam bitumen or emulsion + water ramp Storage Plug mill Slag or fly ash

203 SAMARIS final seminar Increase mechanical performances Foam and emulsion treatment are promising

204 SAMARIS final seminar Crystallized blast furnace slag  High performance aggregate  Complete range of use in road construction  Volume stability  Inert material in many cases

205 SAMARIS final seminar Elaboration close to natural aggregate with separation of residual iron High wear of crushing, sieving equipment High density and porosity Normative European specifications are achieved

206 Coherent & Complementary - Lines of Business SAMARIS final seminar Binder Plants Mix Plants RecyclingRe-use Quarries Quality of life & Environment Services Road works


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