2 Structure BAN Sensor devices Communication technology PHY Network and MACEnergyApplication
3 BANA body area network (BAN) is a wireless network of wearable computing devices. The network consists of several miniaturized body sensor units together with a single body central unit.
4 BAN Deployment Data rate Mobility BAN WSN Deployment BAN does not employ redundant nodes, and only added when they are needed.WSN is often deployed in places that may not be easily accessible by operators which require more nodes to be placed to compensate for node failures.Data rateBAN may occur in a more periodic manner and stable data rate.Most WSNs are employed for event-based monitoring where events can happen at irregular intervals.MobilityBAN users may move around, so that the nodes share the same mobility pattern.WSN nodes are usually considered stationary.
5 Sensor devices Inertial motion unit (Accelerometer and Gyroscope) Blood glucoseBlood pressureCO2 gas sensorElectrocardiogram (ECG)Electroencephalogram (EEG)Blood oxygenElectromyography (EMG)Humidity and temperature sensors
7 PHYStudies focus on characteristics of the signal propagation: around the body (LOS/NLOS)/inside the bodyFactors affecting the signal propagationLocation of the BAN userLocation of the sensor nodeCurrent activity of the human body
8 PHYMeasurementRadio signals are generated in the network analyzer, input in the body through the TX, received in the RX and evaluated in the network analyzer.
9 PHY Characteristics of signal propagation LOS NLOS It is found that the increase of distance between TX and RX causes an increase of the path lossThe dominant propagation path is the direct waveIn classroom, the power of reflected waves exceeded that of the direct wave for the lower bodyNLOSThe propagation wave is more likely to diffract around the human body rather than to pass through itThe dominant path is reflected wave in classroom is reflected wave.
10 PHYThe difference between body shapes (i.e. male, female and child) are at least as large as the impact of a patient's arm movements.In the bodySignals propagating in the body are attenuated mainly due to absorption of power in the tissue. The path loss is much higher than the free space propagation.the frequency bands between 200MHz to 600MHz are suitable in the range from 0 to 3GHz.In frequency range of 3-11 GHz, The signal attenuation in the body increases when the frequency increases. Human body has a good response to signal transportation in the bands between 3-5 GHz.
11 Network and MACNetworkDTN routing/probabilistic routing
12 Network and MAC MAC Scheduling based Contention based Scheduling based MACContention basted MACPower consumptionLowhighBandwidth utilizationMaximumlowTransmission efficiencyHigh
13 Network and MACMACMost current MAC protocols specifically developed for BAN are based on IEEE , as most of the radios used in WBANs are based on IEEE compliant chip set.
14 Energy Energy consumption Approach Sensing Communication Data processingApproachTurn on/off the radio periodicallyReducing idle listening/contention/overhearing
15 Energy MAC Network topology Approach BSN-MAC TDMA/CSMA mixed Network topologyApproachBSN-MACTDMA/CSMA mixedStar topologyThe coordinator utilizing the priority of the nodes to make adjustmentH-MACTDMA basedExploiting heartbeat rhythm information to perform time synchronizationCICADATree topologySetting up a network tree for data gathering and communication using distributed slot assignmentOmeniUsing master-slave approach and assigning an extra slot to the node for direct communication at alarming time
16 Energy Protocol Network topology Approach Anybody Mesh Using clustering to reduce the number of direct transmissions to the remote base station
18 Application Training Health monitoring Positioning Particle filtering/Kalman filtering/range free/ML/LS/DV-hopApplicationScenarioFeedbackTrainingDance/golf/swimming/football/physical rehabilitationGuidanceHealth monitoringRemote health monitoring/falling detectionPhysical information and alarmingPositioningLocation