Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Ubiquitous Healthcare Using MAC Protocols in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs)

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Ubiquitous Healthcare Using MAC Protocols in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs)"— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Ubiquitous Healthcare Using MAC Protocols in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs)

3 Group Members Muhammad Sarim Hayat FA08-BET-131 Nadir Ali KhanFA08-BET-089 Umair Rafiq FA08-BET-132

4 OUTLINE Abstract Introduction Summary of Architectures of WBANs Energy Efficient MAC Protocols MAC Frame structure Path Loss in WBAN Conclusion

5 OUTLINE Abstract Introduction Summary of Architectures of WBANs Energy Efficient MAC Protocols MAC Frame structure Path Loss in WBAN Conclusion

6 Abstract(1/2) Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs) Ubiquitous Healthcare (UHC) o Survey of different architectures of WBANs o Functionality of devices used in architectures Survey of different MAC protocols used in WBASNs o Advantages and disadvantages is discussed o Trade-offs o Mechanisms used by different protocols o Analyses of different MAC protocols with respect to different architectures used in UHC

7 Abstract(2/2) Path loss in WBAN o In-body Communication  With respect to MAC Protocols  With respect to WBAN models o On-body Communication  With respect to MAC Protocols  With respect to distance, amplitude and RMS delay o Off-body communication  With respect to MAC Protocols

8 OUTLINE Abstract Introduction Summary of Architectures of WBANs Energy Efficient MAC Protocols MAC Frame structure Path Loss in WBAN Conclusion

9 Introduction (1/3) WBASNs o Emerging domain of wireless communication o A lot of advancement in this domain o Consists of tiny sensors UHC o Provided to patients all around the globe, especially to elderly peoples o Different architectures are discussed o Each architecture has its own applications depending upon the communication scenarios

10 Introduction (2/3) Energy Efficiency of the system o One of the basic requirement for WBASNs because of limited power of batteries o Life time of a node depends upon:  Energy consumption during communication  Energy wastage during communication Packet collision Overhearing Idle listening Over emitting Control overhead

11 Introduction (3/3) Path loss o Data is transferred through wireless medium so path loss is probable to occur o Path loss is different for different scenarios and it depends upon:  Frequency of operations  Distance between transmitter and receiver nodes (d)

12 Most Frequently Used Standards for WBAN Communication IEEE Bluetooth ZigBee Medical Implant Communications Service (MICS) IEEE Ultra Wide Band (UWB)

13 Wearable Sensors used for Ubiquitous HealthCare Wrist watch (eWatch) Oximeter Chest belt Wearable shirt type (smart shirt/life shirt)

14 General WBAN Architecture

15

16

17

18 OUTLINE Abstract Introduction Summary of Architectures of WBANs Energy Efficient MAC Protocols MAC Frame structure Path Loss in WBAN Conclusion

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26 OUTLINE Abstract Introduction Summary of Architectures of WBANs Energy Efficient MAC Protocols MAC Frame structure Path Loss in WBAN Conclusion

27 Energy Efficient MAC Protocols MAC Layer is the most suitable layer for discussing energy and power issues Collision avoidance for energy efficiency, minimum latency, high throughput, and communication reliability, are basic requirements in the design of MAC protocol. There are several sources of energy wastage:

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38 Energy minimization techniques in MAC Protocols for WBANs (1/2) There are three main approaches adopted for the energy saving mechanisms in MAC protocols for WBANs, which are listed and discussed below: o Low Power Listening (LPL)  Node awakes for a very short period to check activity of channel  If the channel is not idle then the node remains in active state to receive data and other nodes go back to sleeping mode.  LPL is sensitive to traffic rates

39 Energy minimization techniques in MAC Protocols for WBANs (2/2) o Scheduled Contention  Combination of the scheduling and contention based mechanisms  In Contention based protocols, contending nodes try to access the channel for data transmission  Scheduling or Contention free means that each node has the schedule of transmission in the form of bandwidth or time slot. o Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)  Time slots are allocated to the sensor nodes by a master node (MN).  This scheme is highly sensitive to clock drift  The scheme is power efficient because a node gets time slot for transmission of data and remains in sleep mode for rest of the time

40 Advantages and disadvantages of MAC Protocols

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49 Energy minimization mechanism in MAC protocols

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57 Performance Trade-offs made by MAC Protocols

58 Observations o For Static Topology in WBANs  Ta-MAC is best suited for Traffic System Architecture of WBASNs used for UHC  It uses different mechanisms for on demand, emergency and normal traffics o For Dynamic Topology in WBANs  B-MAC is best suited for all other architectures of WBASNs

59 OUTLINE Abstract Introduction Summary of Architectures of WBANs Energy Efficient MAC Protocols MAC Frame structure Path Loss in WBAN Conclusion

60 MAC Frame structure(1/2) MAC frame structure consists of control portion or control packet and data portion. Control portion is responsible for the management and control messages Data portion consist of two sub parts: o Contention Access Period (CAP) o Contention Free Period (CFP)

61 MAC Frame structure(2/2)

62 Comparison Between IEEE MAC and Original

63 Data Traffic Control

64

65

66

67 OUTLINE Abstract Introduction Summary of Architectures of WBANs Energy Efficient MAC Protocols MAC Frame structure Path Loss in WBAN Conclusion

68 Path Loss in WBAN (1/2) WBASNs is greatly influenced by the amount of path loss that occurs due to different impairments. Devices for WBASNs are generally placed inside or on the body surface. Reduction in power density of an electromagnetic wave introduces path loss.

69 Path Loss in WBAN (2/2) The path loss model in dB between the transmitting and the receiving sensor nodes as a function of the distance d is computed by as:

70 Scenarios of Path loss Three scenarios of Path loss:  In-Body Communication  On-Body Communication  Off-Body Communication

71

72 Nodes to Calculate Path Loss in WBAN Implant node Body Surface node External node

73 Effect of WBASN Antennas Electrical antennas, such as dipole Magnetic antennas, such as loop

74 Characteristics of Human Body Not Ideal Medium for Communication Human body consists of materials with different dielectric, thickness and impedance It encounters impairments due to different frequency of operation

75 Pathloss models for In-Body Communication In-Body Communication o Deep Implant to On-Body o Near Surface Implant to On-body o Deep Implant to Implant o Near Surface Implant to Implant

76 Implant to Implant Implant to Body Surface

77 Path loss in different models of WBAN

78 Summary of In-Body Path Loss in WBAN

79

80

81

82

83 Amplitude Attenuation in On-Body

84 Path Loss VS Distance for On-Body Communication

85 RMS Delay at 15cm Separation

86 RMS Delay at 45cm Separation

87 Summary of On-Body Path Loss in WBAN

88

89

90

91 OUTLINE Abstract Introduction Summary of Architectures of WBANs Energy Efficient MAC Protocols MAC Frame structure Path Loss in WBAN Conclusion

92 Conclusion(1/3) Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs) o Emerging domain in Wireless Communication o Most important application is Ubiquitous Healthcare (UHC) Survey is done on: o General Architectures used in WBAN for UHC o Devices and their Functionality o MAC protocols used in WBAN o Advantages and Disadvantages of MAC protocols and their tradeoffs

93 Conclusion(2/3) Path Loss in WBAN o In-Body Communication o On-Body Communication o Off-Body Communication We conclude that o For Static Topology in WBAN  Ta-MAC is best suited for Traffic System Architecture of WBASN used for UHC o For Dynamic Topology in WBAN  B-MAC is best suited for all other architectures of WBASN

94 Conclusion(3/3) Simulation results of In-Body Communication show that o Path loss increases with increase in Frequency and Distance between Sensor Nodes o Path loss is greater for implantable sensors than for On-Body sensors

95 List Of Publications  Nadir Ali Khan, Jaffar Kulachi, Umair Rafiq, Ayesha Bibi, Zahoor Ali Khan, Nadeem Javaid, “Ubiquitous Healthcare in Wireless Body Area Networks”, 11th IEEE International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Communications (IUCC-2012), Liverpool, UK, June  Sarim Hayat, Abida Shareef, Anzar Mahmood, Zahoor Ali Khan, Safdar Hussain Bouk, Nadeem Javaid, “Energy Efficient MAC Protocols in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks”, 14th IEEE International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC-2012), June, Liverpool, UK, 2012.


Download ppt "Ubiquitous Healthcare Using MAC Protocols in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs)"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google