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Dr Atef Masad PhD Biomedicine United Kingdom Medical Terminology.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr Atef Masad PhD Biomedicine United Kingdom Medical Terminology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr Atef Masad PhD Biomedicine United Kingdom Medical Terminology

2 Goal of Course Communication between medical specialists and supporting staff requires knowledge of a consistent and reproducible vocabulary. It is important for students to realize that accurate spelling, pronunciation, and usage of medical terms is of extreme importance in the care of a patient. 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 2

3 Textbook: 1- An Introduction to Medical Terminology for Health Care BY Andrew R. Mutton THIRD EDITION. 2- Medical terminology for health professions Sixth Edition BY ANN EHRLICH and CAROL L. SCHROEDER 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 3

4 Course Objectives At the end of the course, students will be able to: Identify and describe the major organ systems of the body. Describe the major diseases and disorders affecting each body system. Define word roots, combining forms, prefixes, and suffixes of medical terms. 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 4

5 Define new and unfamiliar words by analyzing the elements of medical terminology. Master pronunciation and spelling of common medical words. Evaluate and interpret medical records and other forms of medical communication. 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 5

6 Course Grading Policies: Midterm exam 30% Quizzes 10% Semester project 10% Final Examination 50% 100% 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 6

7 Written exams will consist of multiple choice, true-false, and essay questions. A portion of the each exam will be dictated vocabulary where you will be required to furnish the correct spelling and/or definition of a word. 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 7

8 Quizzes will consist of multiple choice and dictation questions. Quizzes will consist of questions taken from the previous week’s material. The final examination will be a cumulative exam featuring questions from the entire semester and semester projects. 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 8

9 Semester Project: One of the objectives of the course is to ascertain knowledge of diseases and disorders which affect the major body systems. The semester project will give the student an opportunity to study and learn about a particular disease state. The semester project will link the vocabulary you learn throughout the semester to real-life medicine. 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 9

10 Components of the Project: A written paper describing the disease state. This paper should be no longer than 3 pages, typewritten, size 12 font. The written paper should include a bibliography in the standard format. 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 10

11 An oral presentation You will give a 10-15 minute presentation to the class about your selected disease/topic. You should stress how the disease presents, how it is diagnosed, what system and organs are affected, how it is treated, and a discussion about how the disease relates to this course. The presentation may be a poster board or PowerPoint type. 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 11

12 Your presentation should include a one-page original handout about the disease. You should prepare this handout for each member of the class. The final exam will include questions taken from these handouts and presentations. 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 12

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14 Word Root – the word part that is the core of the word Suffix – a word part attached to the end of the word root to modify its meaning Prefix – a word part attached to the beginning of a word root to modify its meaning Combining Vowel – a word part, usually an “O” Four Parts 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 14

15 Word Root The word root is the word part that is the core of the word The word root usually refers to a body part. Some root words are derived from the Latin or Greek language. – player = play / er – arthritis = arthr / itis – hepatitis = hepat / itis 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 15

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17 Word Root Examples “dent” means tooth “dermat” means skin “cardi” means heart “gastr” means stomach “pancreat” means pancreas 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 17

18 Suffix The suffix is a word part attached to the end of the word root to modify its meaning – player = play / er – hepatic = hepat / ic – hepatitis = hepat / itis 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 18

19 Suffixes A suffix is a word element placed at the end of a word or word root that changes the meaning of the word. In the terms tonsill/itis, and tonsill/ectomy, the suffixes are – -itis (inflammation) – and -ectomy (excision, removal). Changing the suffix changes the meaning of the word. In medical terminology, a suffix usually indicates a procedure, condition, disease, or part of speech. Many suffixes are derived from Greek or Latin words 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 19

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21 Suffixes Denoting Incisions -centesis puncture arthrocentesis -ectomy excision, removal appendectomy -stomy forming an opening (mouth) colostomy -tome instrument to cut osteotome -tomy incision, cut into phlebotomy 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 21

22 Suffixes Denoting Reconstructive Surgeries -desis binding, fixation (of a bone, joint) arthrodesis -pexy suspension, fixation (of an organ) mastopexy -rrhaphy suture myorrhaphy -plasty surgical repair rhinoplasty 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 22

23 Suffixes Denoting Refractururing, Loosening, or Crushing -clasis break, fracture osteoclasis -lysis separation, destruction, loosening enterolysis -tripsy crushing lithotripsy 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 23

24 Diagnostic, Symptomatic, and Related Suffixes -algia pain cephalalgia -dynia pain gastrodynia -cele hernia, swelling hepatocele -ectasis dilation, expansion bronchiectasis 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 24

25 -emesis vomiting hyperemesis -emia blood condition leukemia -gen or -genesis forming, producing, origin carcinogen or osteogenesis -gram record, a writing cardiogram -graph instrument cardiograph 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 25

26 -iasis abnormal condition cholelithiasis -itis inflammation gastritis -lith stone, calculus cholelith -logist specialist in the study of dermatologist -logy study of psychology 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 26

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28 -malacia softening osteomalacia -megaly enlargement hepatomegaly -meter instrument for recording thermometer -metry act of measuring pelvimetry -oid resembling lipoid 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 28

29 -oma tumor adenoma -osis abnormal condition, increase dermatosis -para to bear (also a prefix) multipara -paresis partial paralysis hemaparesis -pathy disease neuropathy 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 29

30 -penia decrease, deficiency leukopenia -phagia eating, swallowing dysphagia -phasia speech aphasia -philia attraction to hemophilia -phobia fear claustrophobia 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 30

31 -plasia formation, growth hyperplasia -plegia paralysis, stroke hemiplegia -poiesis formation, production hemopoiesis -ptosis prolapse hysteroptosis -rrhage or -rrhagia bursting forth hemorrhage or menorrhagia 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 31

32 -rrhea discharge, flow diarrhea -rrhexis rupture angiorrhexis -scope instrument to view gastroscope -scopy visual examination gastroscopy -spasm involuntary contraction blepharospasm 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 32

33 -stasis standing still hemostasis -stenosis narrowing, stricture arteriostenosis -toxic poison thyrotoxic -trophy development, nourishment atrophy 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 33

34 Prefixes A prefix is a word element attached to the beginning of a word or word root. Adding or changing a prefix changes the meaning of the word. The prefix usually indicates a number, time, position, or direction. Many of the same prefixes found in medical terminology are also found in the English language 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 34

35 Examples – replay = re / play – subhepatic = sub / hepat / ic – intravenous = intra / ven / ous (within, vein, relating to 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 35

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37 Hypoinsulinemia Hypo / insulin / emia Prefix Word root suffix LOW INSULIN BLOOD Notice that there is no combining vowel in this word because the prefix ends with a vowel and the suffix begins with a vowel. 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 37

38 Prefixes of Position Ante-antepartum, antecubital pre-preoperative pro-prootic epiepidermis, epidural, epinephrine 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 38

39 Prefixes of Position hypo-hypodermic, hypoallergenic infra-infrapubic sub-subcutaneous, submarine inter-intercostal, internet medi-medial, median meso-mesoderm 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 39

40 Prefixes of Position post-postnatal retro-retroperitoneal 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 40

41 Prefixes of Number and Measurement Bi-bilateral dipl-diplopia diplodiplococci hemi-hemiplegia semi-semicircular hyper-hyperglycemia macro-large 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 41

42 Prefixes of Number and Measurement Micro-microscope mono-mononuclear uni-unilateral multi-multipara 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 42

43 Prefixes of Number and Measurement Poly-polyphobia, polymer primi-primigravida quadri-quadriplegia tri-triceps 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 43

44 Prefixes of Negation A-asymptomatic an-anesthesia im-impotency in-insane, insensitive 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 44

45 Prefixes of Direction Ab-abnormal ad-adduction, addition circum-circumoral, circumference peri-periosteitis, perimeter ec-ectopia ex-excise 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 45

46 Prefixes of Direction Dia-diarrhea trans-transfusion ecto-ectoderm exo-exotropia extra-extraocular endo-endocardium intra-intradermal 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 46

47 Prefixes of Direction Para-paranasal super-supersensitive supra-suprarenal anti-antibacterial contra-contraception brady-slow dys-dyspepsia 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 47

48 Prefixes of Direction Eu-eupnea hetero-different homo-homosexual mal-malnutrition pan-panhysterectomy, panacea pseudo-pseudoplegia syn-synarthrosis, synthesis tachy-tachypnea 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 48

49 Combining Vowel The combining vowel is a word part, usually an “o” and is used: – between word roots – between a word root & a suffix to ease pronunciation – thermometer = therm / o / meter – arthropathy = arthr / o / pathy 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 49

50 Oste / o / arthr / it is – The combining vowel is used to ease pronunciation; therefore, not all medical terms have combining vowels. 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 50

51 Combining form A combining form is a word root with the combining vowel attached, separated by a vertical slash it is not a word part, rather it is the association of the word root and the combining vowel. To analyze a medical term divide it into word parts, label each word part, and label the combining forms. 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 51

52 Combining Forms Combining forms consist of a combining vowel. The combining vowel is usually an “o”, but others may be used. IE: gastr / o pronounced GASTRO. Word root Combining vowel 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 52

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54 Guidelines Guideline # one – When connecting a word root and a suffix, a combining vowel is usually not used if the suffix begins with a vowel. Hepat / ic – When connecting two word roots, a combining vowel is usually used even if vowels are present at the junction. A word root cannot stand alone. A suffix must be added to complete the term. 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 54

55 Word-Building System By understanding the meanings of word roots, one can determine the meaning of complex medical terms by putting together the smaller parts. 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 55

56 Leukocytopenia Word Roots: Leuk / (white) cyt / (cell) Combining Vowel / o / Suffix: / penia (decrease) 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 56

57 A combining vowel is used between a word root and a suffix that begins with a consonant (not a vowel). This is to make pronunciation easier. Word root: scler / (hardening) Suffix: / derma (skin) Term: Scler / o / derma (hardening of the skin) Combining vowel 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 57

58 Review A combining vowel IS used to link one root to another root, and before a suffix that begins with a consonant. A combining vowel IS NOT used before a suffix that begins with a vowel. 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 58

59 Defining Medical Words Here are the three basic rules for defining medical words using the example term gastroenteritis. Rule #1 – Define the suffix, or last part of the word. In this case, -itis, which means inflammation. Rule #2 – Define the first part of the word (which may be a word root, combining form, or prefix). In this case, the combining form gastr/o means stomach. Rule #3 – Define the middle parts of the word. In this case, enter/ means intestine. 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 59

60 Defining Medical Words When you analyze gastroenteritis following the three previous rules, the meaning is revealed as: 1. inflammation (of) 2. stomach (and) 3. intestine Thus, the definition of gastroenteritis is “inflammation (of) stomach (and) intestine.” 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 60

61 Building Medical Words There are three basic rules for building medical words. Rule #1 – A word root links a suffix that begins with a vowel. Rule #2 – A combining form (root + o) links a suffix that begins with a consonant. Rule #3 – Use a combining form to link a root to another root to form a compound word. 4/29/2015Dr Atef Masad 61

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