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Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. Chapter 77 Drugs for Allergic Rhinitis, Cough, and Colds
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.2 Allergic Rhinitis Inflammatory disorder of the upper airway, lower airway, and eyes Symptoms Sneezing Rhinorrhea Pruritus Nasal congestion For some people: conjunctivitis, sinusitis, and asthma
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.3 Allergic Rhinitis Seasonal and perennial Triggered by airborne allergens Allergens bind to immunoglobulin (Ig)E on mast cells Inflammatory mediators released Histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.4 Classes of Drugs Used for Allergic Rhinitis Oral antihistamines Intranasal glucocorticoids Sympathomimetics (oral and intranasal)
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.5 Oral Antihistamines For allergic rhinitis Do not reduce nasal congestion Most effective if taken prophylactically Adverse effects are mild: sedation with first generation (much less with second generation) Anticholinergic effects Azelastine nasal spray Only intranasal antihistamine available Benefits equivalent to oral antihistamines Metered-spray device, leaves bitter taste
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.6 Intranasal Glucocorticoids First choice—most effective for treatment and prevention of rhinitis Mild adverse effects Drying of nasal mucosa or sore throat Rarely, systemic effects (adrenal suppression and slowing of linear pediatric growth)
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.7 Intranasal Cromolyn Trade name: NasalCrom Extremely safe, but only moderately effective Suppresses release of histamines from mast cells Best used for prophylaxis, not for treatment Response may take 1–2 weeks to develop
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.8 Sympathomimetics (Oral/Nasal) Reduce nasal congestion (do not reduce rhinorrhea, sneezing, or itching) Activate alpha 1 -adrenergic receptors on nasal blood vessels Adverse effects Rebound congestion CNS stimulation Cardiovascular effects and stroke Abuse
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.9 Sympathomimetics (Oral/Nasal) Factors in topical administration Should not use longer than 5 consecutive days Drops vs. sprays Phenylephrine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine Antihistamine-sympathetic combinations Ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) Montelukast (Singulair) Omalizumab (Xolair)
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.10 Drugs for Cough Antitussives Drugs that suppress cough Opioid antitussives Codeine and hydrocodone Codeine and hydrocodone Nonopioid antitussives Dextromethorphan Dextromethorphan Diphenhydramine Diphenhydramine
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.11 Common Cold Acute upper respiratory viral infection Rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, cough, sneeze, sore throat, headache, hoarseness, malaise, myalgia Fever common in kids, rare in adults Self-limited and usually benign No cure; just treatment of symptoms
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.12 OTC Cold Remedies Combination cold remedies usually contain two or more of the following: Nasal decongestant Antitussive Analgesic Antihistamine (for cholinergic actions) Caffeine (to offset effect of antihistamine) OTC = over-the-counter.
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.13 Pediatric OTC Cold Remedies Use with caution in young children No proof of efficacy or safety, but proof of harm Avoid OTC cold remedies in children younger than 2 years of age Use only products labeled for pediatric use Consult a healthcare professional before giving to a child Read all product safety information before dosing Use the measuring device provided with the product Discontinue the medicine and seek professional care if the child’s condition worsens
Drugs for Allergic Rhinitis, Cough, and Colds. Allergic Rhinitis Inflammatory disorder of the upper airway, lower airway, and eyes Symptoms Sneezing.
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Copyright © 2015 Cengage Learning® Chapter 26 Respiratory System Drugs and Antihistamines.
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1 DRUGS AFFECTING RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. 2 ASTHMA chronic inflammatory airway disease excessive tracheobronchial reactivity SYMPTOMS wheezing, chest tightness,
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Chapter 40 Drugs for Upper Respiratory Disorders Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006, 2003, 2000, 1997, 1993 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
Respiratory Tract Conditions Chapter 18. Common Cold Symptoms Usually begin 1-2 days after exposure Include Clear nasal discharge (rhinorrhea) Nasal itching.
Rhinosinusitis Dr. Abdullah S. Al Yousef. Allergic Rhinitis Definition : An inflammatory disorder of the nose which occurs when the membranes lining the.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 CHAPTER 32 Bronchodilator Drugs and the Treatment of Asthma.
Elsevier Inc. items and derived items © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. Antihistamines.
Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. CHAPTER 36 Antihistamines, Decongestants, Antitussives,
Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 20 Drugs Affecting the Respiratory System.
ALLERGIC RHNITIS - PREVALENCE n Affects million Americans n 10% - 30% of adults n Up to 40% of children n More common young boys n but little.
Drugs Used to Treat Lower Respiratory Disease Chapter 31 Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
Chapter 36 Antihistamines, Decongestants, Antitussives, and Expectorants Copyright © 2014 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
Chapter 20: Drugs for Tx Allergic Rhinitis DH206: Pharmacology Lisa Mayo, RDH, BSDH Copyright © 2011, 2007 Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier. All rights.
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RESPIRATORY DRUGS CHAPTER 6. ANTITUSSIVES -The cough reflex occurs when receptors in the airway send impulses to the brainstem and cause contraction of.
Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2004 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1 Chapter 26 Antiinflammatories and Antihistamines.
Drugs For Treating Asthma Chapter 9. Sympathomimetic Agents Noninfectious respiratory diseases are divided into two groups – Asthma is characterized by.
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Better Health. No Hassles. Hay Fever. Better Health. No Hassles. HAY FEVER Hay fever also called allergic rhinitis Unlike a cold, hay fever isn’t caused.
Antihistamines. Block the release of histamines from basophiles and mast cells in the blood Antihistamines for the tx of allergies But also for insomnia,
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DH206: Pharmacology CH 19:Respiratory Lisa Mayo, RDH, BSDH Copyright © 2011, 2007 Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier. All rights reserved.
Allergic Rhinitis. References Allergic rhinitis management pocket reference Allergy 2008: 63: 990–996. Pharmacotherapy: A pathophysiologic Approach.
Upper Respiratory Tract Disorder Lecture 2 12/14/20151.
Allergic Rhinitis- inflammation of the nasal airways from an allergen (dust, pollen, animal dander). Symptoms runny noseitching eye rednessswelling Treatment-
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For more information: NHS Choices (http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/ cough/pages/introduction.aspx)http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/ cough/pages/introduction.aspx.
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