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Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. Chapter 77 Drugs for Allergic Rhinitis, Cough, and Colds
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.2 Allergic Rhinitis Inflammatory disorder of the upper airway, lower airway, and eyes Symptoms Sneezing Rhinorrhea Pruritus Nasal congestion For some people: conjunctivitis, sinusitis, and asthma
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.3 Allergic Rhinitis Seasonal and perennial Triggered by airborne allergens Allergens bind to immunoglobulin (Ig)E on mast cells Inflammatory mediators released Histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.4 Classes of Drugs Used for Allergic Rhinitis Oral antihistamines Intranasal glucocorticoids Sympathomimetics (oral and intranasal)
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.5 Oral Antihistamines For allergic rhinitis Do not reduce nasal congestion Most effective if taken prophylactically Adverse effects are mild: sedation with first generation (much less with second generation) Anticholinergic effects Azelastine nasal spray Only intranasal antihistamine available Benefits equivalent to oral antihistamines Metered-spray device, leaves bitter taste
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.6 Intranasal Glucocorticoids First choice—most effective for treatment and prevention of rhinitis Mild adverse effects Drying of nasal mucosa or sore throat Rarely, systemic effects (adrenal suppression and slowing of linear pediatric growth)
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.7 Intranasal Cromolyn Trade name: NasalCrom Extremely safe, but only moderately effective Suppresses release of histamines from mast cells Best used for prophylaxis, not for treatment Response may take 1–2 weeks to develop
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.8 Sympathomimetics (Oral/Nasal) Reduce nasal congestion (do not reduce rhinorrhea, sneezing, or itching) Activate alpha 1 -adrenergic receptors on nasal blood vessels Adverse effects Rebound congestion CNS stimulation Cardiovascular effects and stroke Abuse
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.9 Sympathomimetics (Oral/Nasal) Factors in topical administration Should not use longer than 5 consecutive days Drops vs. sprays Phenylephrine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine Antihistamine-sympathetic combinations Ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) Montelukast (Singulair) Omalizumab (Xolair)
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.10 Drugs for Cough Antitussives Drugs that suppress cough Opioid antitussives Codeine and hydrocodone Codeine and hydrocodone Nonopioid antitussives Dextromethorphan Dextromethorphan Diphenhydramine Diphenhydramine
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.11 Common Cold Acute upper respiratory viral infection Rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, cough, sneeze, sore throat, headache, hoarseness, malaise, myalgia Fever common in kids, rare in adults Self-limited and usually benign No cure; just treatment of symptoms
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.12 OTC Cold Remedies Combination cold remedies usually contain two or more of the following: Nasal decongestant Antitussive Analgesic Antihistamine (for cholinergic actions) Caffeine (to offset effect of antihistamine) OTC = over-the-counter.
Copyright © 2013, 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.13 Pediatric OTC Cold Remedies Use with caution in young children No proof of efficacy or safety, but proof of harm Avoid OTC cold remedies in children younger than 2 years of age Use only products labeled for pediatric use Consult a healthcare professional before giving to a child Read all product safety information before dosing Use the measuring device provided with the product Discontinue the medicine and seek professional care if the child’s condition worsens
1 Drugs Acting on the Respiratory System. 2 Introduction The respiratory system is subject to many disorders that interfere with respiration and other.
Respiratory Medicines. Decongestants w Indications runny nose stuffy head sore throat some ear pain w Action - binds to alpha-1 receptors on blood vessels.
RESPIRATORY PHARMACOLOGY. Bronchial Asthma (Long term respiratory dysfunction) Definition: A chronic inflammatory disorder of the airway (trachea, bronchi,
Allergy Medications Oral Antihistamines: These medications are used to block the action of the histamine on the tissues. They do not stop the formation.
Introduction What is otolaryngology? What subdivisions exist within the specialty? Is otolaryngology a medical or a surgical specialty? How can.
Nonprescription (OTC) Medications NAPLEX PG 405. Major categories of products to review Most important antacids, antidiarrheals cough and cold remedies.
Asthma Pharmacological Management In the Athletic Setting.
Alteration in Respiratory Function Jan Bazner-Chandler RN, MSN, CNS, CPNP.
1. 2 Medicines are Drugs A medicine or drug… –changes how your body works, or –treats or prevents a disease or symptom.
1Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 53 Nose Sinus, and Throat Disorders.
Infectious Disease in Athletics Role of the Immune System Collection of disease fighting cells that neutralizes foreign substances –Illness results when.
Medical Treatment of Asthma and Related Equipment / Gadgets.
2001 DEY B /01. Anaphylaxis: Screen, Educate, and Protect to Improve Patient Outcomes 2001 DEY B /01.
Chapter 9 Understanding Drugs and Medicines. Analgesic A medicine that relieves pain.
THE NEUROHUMORAL CONTROL OF THE AIRWAYS AND BRONCHODILATOR DRUGS Dr Stuart M Wilson.
Introduction to ALLERGIES. What is Allergy? An exaggerated immune response to normally harmless substances such as: food, mold spores, dust mites, insect.
Non-anti-inflammatory Analgesics. Acetaminophen / Tylenol Only OTC in this category Analgesic Antipyretic Effective for mild to moderate pain Rx or OTC.
1 National Institutes of Health (NIH) NAEPP 2007 Asthma Guideline Expert Panel Report (EPR) -3 Susan K. Ross RN, AE-C MDH Asthma Program
Urticaria and Angioedema 101 Scot Laurie, MD Allergy and Asthma Center at NorthPark Assistant professor, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.
Analgesics NAPLEX PG 132. Treatment Algorithm for Pain Patient in pain Rating Scale 0-10 Mild Pain (0-3) NSAID, aspirin, APAP Moderate Pain (4-6) Weak.
Dr. Nikhil Mali Nasal congestion is the blockage of the nasal passages usually due to membranes lining the nose becoming swollen from inflamed blood.
Diseases of the Nose & Sinuses Khalid H. Al-Sebeih, MD, FRCSC, ABO Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University. Department.
Respiratory System Karie, Leah and Heidi Respiratory Conditions Disorders of Upper Respiratory Epistaxis Deviated septum Nasal polyps Allergic Rhinitis/Conjunctivitis.
1 National Institutes of Health (NIH) NAEPP 2007 Asthma Guideline UPDATE Susan K. Ross RN, AE-C MDH Asthma Program
1. 2 Medicines In My Home? What is a medicine? Why do you use medicines? How do you decide whether to use a medicine? How do you choose an over-the-counter.
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). NSAIDs - Effects 4 Anti-inflammatroy - inhibit synthesis of prostaglandins by blocking the cyclooxygenase.
Self Care Program Dunham US Army Health Clinic Carlisle, PA TAKING CARE OF YOU.
Antibiotics are medicines used to treat infections that are caused by bacteria (germs). Antibiotics cannot treat infections caused by viruses (such as.
Chapter 11: Drugs as Medicines. The Actions of Drugs Common misconception: “Drugs kill diseases” Common misconception: “Drugs kill diseases” Reality:
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