Presentation on theme: "Respiratory Medicines. Decongestants w Indications runny nose stuffy head sore throat some ear pain w Action - binds to alpha-1 receptors on blood vessels."— Presentation transcript:
Decongestants w Indications runny nose stuffy head sore throat some ear pain w Action - binds to alpha-1 receptors on blood vessels in nasal membranes
Decongestants w Effects vasoconstriction decrease swelling dries nasal passages decrease congestion unclog eustachian tubes w Administration oral topical
Decongestants w Examples (Pseudoephedrine) - Sudafed, Claritin-D (Phenylpropanalomine) – Banned by FDA in 2000
Decongestants w Adverse effects headache dizziness nervousness nausea increase blood pressure ** slight stimulant effect Pseudoephedrine banned by USOC
Important definitions w What is histamine? Endogenous chemical stored in mast cells involved in normal regulation of physiologic functions w What is an allergen? An ordinarily harmless substance that the body recognizes as foreign w The result? The body produces antibodies (IgE) to fight the foreign substance causes the release of histamine w Effects of histamine - redness, itching, watery eyes, vasodilation
Antihistamines w Action - blocks H 1 receptor sites by attaching to mast cells in nasal passages w Effects - prevents a histamine response dries membranes shrinks swollen tissues decreases redness decreases itching
Antihistamines w Examples (Diphenhydramine) - Benadryl, Tylenol PM (Doxylamine Succinate) - Unisom (Clemastine) - Tavist (Promethazine HCl) - Phenergan Claritin Allegra Zyrtec ** many antihistamines also contain a decongest.
Antitussives - (Cough Suppressant) w Suppress a non-productive cough w Types & Effects narcotic - suppress cough reflex non-narcotic - inhibit irritating effects of histamine, decrease sensitivity to stimuli w Adverse effect – sedation, interactions w/other meds w Examples (Dextromethorphan) (Codeine)
Cough Expectorant w Recommended for productive coughs w Facilitate production and ejection of mucus w Decrease viscosity w Examples Guaifenesin w Explain the logic of combining an expectorant with a suppressant?????
Fixed-Ratio Combination Products 1. Some active ingredients not needed 2. Not possible to formulate dosage to person 3. Ingredients are sometimes less than therapeutic doses 4. Risk of interaction 5. Cost
Zinc w Inhibit the production of viruses w Recently used to decrease symptoms of the common cold