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Microbial Diseases of the Respiratory System

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1 Microbial Diseases of the Respiratory System
Chapter 24 Microbial Diseases of the Respiratory System

2 Q&A How do these bacteria, by growing on these particular body cells, cause the disease pertussis?

3 The Respiratory System
Learning Objectives 24-1 Describe how microorganisms are prevented from entering the respiratory system. 24-2 Characterize the normal microbiota of the upper and lower respiratory systems.

4 The Upper Respiratory System
Nose Pharynx (throat) Middle ear Eustachian tubes

5 Structures of Upper Respiratory System
Figure 24.1

6 The Lower Respiratory System
Larynx Trachea Bronchial tubes Alveoli Pleura

7 Structures of Lower Respiratory System
Figure 24.2

8 Normal Microbiota of Respiratory System
Suppress pathogens by competitive inhibition in upper respiratory system Lower respiratory system is sterile

9 What is the function of hairs in the nasal passages? 24-1
Normally, the lower respiratory tract is nearly sterile. What is the primary mechanism responsible? 24-2

10 Upper Respiratory System Diseases
Learning Objectives 24-3 Differentiate pharyngitis, laryngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, and epiglottitis. 24-4 List the causative agent, symptoms, prevention, preferred treatment, and laboratory identification tests for streptococcal pharyngitis, scarlet fever, diphtheria, cutaneous diphtheria, and otitis media. 24-5 List the causative agents and treatments for the common cold.

11 Upper Respiratory System Diseases
Pharyngitis Laryngitis Tonsillitis Sinusitis Epiglottitis: H. influenzae type b

12 Streptococcal Pharyngitis
Also called strep throat Streptococcus pyogenes Resistant to phagocytosis Streptokinases lyse clots Streptolysins are cytotoxic Diagnosis by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) tests Figure 24.3

13 Scarlet Fever Streptococcus pyogenes Pharyngitis
Erythrogenic toxin produced by lysogenized S. pyogenes

14 Diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheriae: Gram-positive rod
Diphtheria toxin produced by lysogenized C. diphtheriae Figure 24.4

15 Diphtheria Diphtheria membrane: Fibrin, tissue, bacterial cells
Figure 24.5

16 Diphtheria Prevented by DTaP vaccine Cutaneous diphtheria
Diphtheria toxoid Cutaneous diphtheria Infected skin wound leads to slow-healing ulcer

17 Otitis Media S. pneumoniae (35%) H. influenzae (20–30%)
M. catarrhalis (10–15%) S. pyogenes (8–10%) S. aureus (1–2%) Incidence of S. pneumoniae reduced by vaccine Figure 24.6

18 The Common Cold Rhinoviruses (50%) Coronaviruses (15–20%)

19 Which one of the following is most likely to be associated with a headache: pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, or epiglottitis? 24-3 Among streptococcal pharyngitis, scarlet fever, or diphtheria, which two diseases are usually caused by the same genus of bacteria? 24-4 Which viruses, rhinoviruses or coronaviruses, cause about half of cases of the common cold? 24-5

20 Diseases in Focus: Diseases of the Upper Respiratory System
A patient presents with fever and a red, sore throat. Later, a grayish membrane appears in the throat. Gram-positive rods were cultured from the membrane. Can you identify infections that could cause these symptoms?

21 Lower Respiratory System Diseases
Learning Objectives 24-6 List the causative agent, symptoms, prevention, preferred treatment, and laboratory identification tests for pertussis and tuberculosis. 24-7 Compare and contrast the seven bacterial pneumonias discussed in this chapter. 24-8 List the etiology, method of transmission, and symptoms of melioidosis.

22 Lower Respiratory System Diseases
Bacteria, viruses, and fungi cause Bronchitis Bronchiolitis Pneumonia

23 Pertussis (Whooping Cough)
Bordetella pertussis Gram-negative coccobacillus Capsule Tracheal cytotoxin of cell wall damaged ciliated cells Pertussis toxin Prevented by DTaP vaccine (acellular Pertussis cell fragments) Figure 24.7

24 Pertussis (Whooping Cough)
Stage 1: Catarrhal stage, like common cold Stage 2: Paroxysmal stage—violent coughing sieges Stage 3: Convalescence stage

25 Q&A How do these bacteria, by growing on these particular body cells, cause the disease pertussis?

26 Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Acid-fast rod; transmitted from human to human Figure 24.8

27 Tuberculosis M. bovis: <1% U.S. cases; not transmitted from human to human M. avium-intracellulare complex infects people with late-stage HIV infection

28 Tuberculosis Clinical Focus, p. 144

29 Tuberculosis Figure 14.10c

30 Worldwide Distribution of Tuberculosis
Figure 24.11a

31 U.S. Distribution of Tuberculosis
Figure 24.11b

32 The Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis
Figure 24.9

33 The Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis
Figure 24.9

34 The Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis
Figure 24.9

35 The Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis
Figure 24.9

36 The Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis
Figure 24.9

37 Treatment of Tuberculosis
Treatment: Prolonged treatment with multiple antibiotics Vaccines: BCG, live, avirulent M. bovis; not widely used in United States

38 A Positive Tuberculin Skin Test
Figure 24.10

39 Diagnosis of Tuberculosis
Tuberculin skin test screening Positive reaction means current or previous infection Followed by X-ray or CT exam, acid-fast staining of sputum, culturing of bacteria

40 Pneumococcal Pneumonia
Streptococcus pneumoniae Gram-positive encapsulated diplococci Figure 24.12

41 Pneumococcal Pneumonia
Symptoms: Infected alveoli of lung fill with fluids; interferes with oxygen uptake Diagnosis: Optochin-inhibition test or bile solubility test; serological typing of bacteria Treatment: Penicillin, fluoroquinolones Prevention: Pneumococcal vaccine

42 Haemophilus influenzae Pneumonia
Gram-negative coccobacillus Predisposing factors: Alcoholism, poor nutrition, cancer, or diabetes Symptoms: Resemble those of pneumococcal pneumonia Diagnosis: Isolation; special media for nutritional requirements Treatment: Cephalosporins

43 Mycoplasmal Pneumonia
Primary atypical pneumonia; walking pneumonia Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pleomorphic, wall-less bacteria Common in children and young adults Figure 24.13

44 Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Figure 11.20

45 Mycoplasmal Pneumonia
Symptoms: Mild but persistent respiratory symptoms; low fever, cough, headache Diagnosis: PCR and serological testing Treatment: Tetracyclines

46 Legionellosis Legionella pneumophila Found in water
Gram-negative rod Found in water Transmitted by inhaling aerosols; not transmitted from human to human Clinical Focus, p. 691

47 Legionellosis Symptoms: Potentially fatal pneumonia that tends to affect older men who drink or smoke heavily Diagnosis: Culture on selective media, DNA probe Treatment: Erythromycin

48 Psittacosis (Ornithosis)
Chlamydophila psittaci Gram-negative intracellular bacterium Transmitted to humans by elementary bodies from bird droppings Reorganizes into reticulate body after being phagocytized

49 Psittacosis (Ornithosis)
Symptoms: Symptoms, if any, are fever, headache, chills Diagnosis: Growth of bacteria in eggs or cell culture Treatment: Tetracyclines

50 Psittacosis (Ornithosis)
Figure 11.24a

51 Chlamydial Pneumonia Chlamydophila pneumoniae
Transmitted from human to human Figure 11.24b

52 Chlamydial Pneumonia Symptoms: Mild respiratory illness common in young people; resembles mycoplasmal pneumonia Diagnosis: Serological tests Treatment: Tetracyclines

53 Q Fever Causative agent: Coxiella burnetii Reservoir: Large mammals
Tick vector Can be transmitted via unpasteurized milk

54 Coxiella burnetii, the Cause of Q Fever
Figure 24.14

55 Q Fever Symptoms: Mild respiratory disease lasting 1–2 weeks; occasional complications such as endocarditis occur Diagnosis: Growth in cell culture Treatment: Doxycycline and chloroquine

56 Melioidosis Causative agent: by Burkholderia pseudomallei
Reservoir: Soil Mainly in southeast Asia and northern Australia Symptoms: Pneumonia, or tissue abscesses and severe sepsis Diagnosis: Bacterial culture Treatment: Ceftazidime

57 Diseases in Focus: Common Bacterial Pneumonias
A 27-year-old man with a history of asthma was hospitalized with a 4-day history of progressive cough and 2 days of spiking fevers. Gram-positive cocci in pairs were cultured from a blood sample. Can you identify infections that could cause these symptoms?

58 Another name for pertussis is whooping cough
Another name for pertussis is whooping cough. This symptom is caused by the pathogens’ attack on which cells? 24-6 What group of bacterial pathogens causes what is informally called “walking pneumonia”? 24-7 The bacterium causing melioidosis in humans also causes a disease of horses known as what? 24-8

59 Lower Respiratory System Diseases
Learning Objective 24-9 List the causative agent, symptoms, prevention, and preferred treatment for viral pneumonia, RSV, and influenza.

60 Viral Pneumonia Viral pneumonia occurs as a complication of influenza, measles, or chickenpox Viral etiology suspected if no other cause is determined

61 Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
Common in infants; 4500 deaths annually Causes cell fusion (syncytium) in cell culture Symptoms: Pneumonia in infants Diagnosis: Serological test for viruses and antibodies Treatment: Ribavirin, palivizumab

62 Influenza (Flu) Symptoms: Chills, fever, headache, and muscle aches
No intestinal symptoms 1% mortality, very young and very old Treatment: Zanamivir and oseltamivir inhibit neuraminidase Prophylaxis: Multivalent vaccine

63 The Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin (HA) spikes used for attachment to host cells Neuraminidase (NA) spikes used to release virus from cell Figure 24.15

64 The Influenza Virus Antigenic shift Antigenic drift
Changes in HA and NA spikes Probably due to genetic recombination between different strains infecting the same cell Antigenic drift Point mutations in genes encoding HA or NA spikes May involve only 1 amino acid Allows virus to avoid mucosal IgA antibodies

65 Influenza Serotypes Type Antigenic Subtype Year Severity A H3N2 H1N1
1889 1918 1957 1968 1977 Moderate Severe Low B None 1940 C 1947 Very mild

66 Is reassortment of the RNA segments of the influenza virus the cause of antigenic shift or antigenic drift? 24-9

67 Lower Respiratory System Diseases
Learning Objective 24-10 List the causative agent, mode of transmission, preferred treatment, and laboratory identification tests for four fungal diseases of the respiratory system.

68 Histoplasmosis Histoplasma capsulatum, dimorphic fungus Figure 24.16

69 Histoplasmosis Distribution
Figure 24.17

70 Coccidioidomycosis Causative agent: Coccidioides immitis
Reservoir: Desert soils of Southwest U.S. Symptoms: Fever, coughing, weight loss Diagnosis: Serological tests Treatment: Amphotericin B

71 The Life Cycle of Coccidioides immitis
Figure 24.18

72 U.S. Endemic Area for Coccidioidomycosis
Figure 24.19

73 Pneumocystis Pneumonia
Causative agent: Pneumocystis jirovecii Reservoir: Unknown; possibly humans or soil Symptoms: Pneumonia Diagnosis: Microscopy Treatment: Trimethoprim

74 Figure 24.20

75 Blastomycosis Causative agent: Blastomyces dermatitidis
Reservoir: Soil in Mississippi valley area Symptoms: Abscesses; extensive tissue damage Diagnosis: Isolation of pathogen Treatment: Amphotericin B

76 Other Fungi Involved in Respiratory Disease
Systemic Predisposing factors: Immunocompromised state Cancer Diabetes Aspergillus fumigatus Mucor Rhizopus

77 The droppings of both blackbirds and bats support the growth of Histoplasma capsulatum; which of these two animal reservoirs is normally actually infected by the fungus? 24-10

78 Diseases in Focus: Diseases of the Lower Respiratory System
A worker was hospitalized for acute respiratory illness. He had been near a colony of bats. The mass was surgically removed. Microscopic examination of the mass revealed ovoid yeast cells. Can you identify infections that could cause these symptoms?

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