Presentation on theme: "Lower Respiratory Tract Infection. Pneumonia Common with high morbidity and mortality rates. Acute respiratory infection with focal chest signs and radiographic."— Presentation transcript:
Pneumonia Common with high morbidity and mortality rates. Acute respiratory infection with focal chest signs and radiographic changes. Classification; 1. Community-acquired pneumonia. 2. Hospital-acquired pneumonia (nosocomial). 3. Pneumonia in the immunocompromised.
Community-acquired Pneumonia Epidemiology; Worldwide disease, common in the winter months. Clinical features; 1. Symptoms; malaise, fever, and shortness in breath; productive cough, pleuritic chest pain, tachycardia. 2. Chest X-ray; lobar, patchy consolidation, or diffuse shadowing.. Complications. Septicaemia and empyaema
S. pneumonia 30-50% of community-acquired pneumonia. Occurs in all age groups. Risk group; patients with chronic lung disease, splenectomized patients and immunocompromised patients. X-rays; shows lobar consolidation. Laboratory diagnosis; by sputum and blood cultures. Treatment; penicillin or erythromycin.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae 1-20% Occur primarily in young adults. X-ray shows diffuse changes. Laboratory diagnosis is by serology. Treatment; erythromycin.
Haemophilus influenzae <10% of all community acquired cases. Common in infants <5 years. Diagnosis by sputum culture.
Legionella pneumophila L. pneumophila is transmitted via aerosols particularly from contaminated air- conditioning systems. <5% Elderly and immunocompromised are in particular risk. Specimen; culture, serology, direct immunofluorescence.
C. pneumoniae 10% Young adults have high incidence. Diagnosis by serology.
Symptoms appears >2 days after admission. Common nosocomial infection Risk factors include assisted respiration, immunocompromised and pre-existed pulmonary disease. Aetiology; S. pneumoniae, H. influnzae, Gram negative organisms like E. coli, Klebsiella.