Presentation on theme: "Protists Life Science – January 2013- Hooper. What is a Protist? Protists are eukaryotes (organisms whose cells have a nucleus) that cannot be classified."— Presentation transcript:
What is a Protist? Protists are eukaryotes (organisms whose cells have a nucleus) that cannot be classified as plants, animals, or fungi. Additionally, all protists live in moist surroundings.
A Kingdom of Diversity Protists can be heterotrophs, autotrophs, or both. Some protists are motile and some are not. Trypanosoma brucei “ Diversity” is the word that best describes Kingdom Protista. This kingdom contains organisms that are unicellular and organisms that are multicellular. It is the “Odds and Ends” Kingdom.
Animal-Like Protists Protozoan: one-celled animal-like protists. They are heterotrophs. Most protozoa are able to move. Protozoa include: 1.Sarcodines 2. Ciliates 3.Flagellates 4. Parasitic protozoa http://www.sciencephoto.com/image/100822/530wm/C0036596-Proteus_amoeba,_light_micrograph-SPL.jpg Amoeba proteus
Plantlike Protists http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/15785/enlarge http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/364891/enlarge Plantlike Protists – autotrophs with a cell wall. 1. Diatoms 2. Dinoflagellates 3. Euglenoids 4. Red, Green, and Brown Algae
Funguslike Protists The funguslike protists are heterotrophs that have cell walls and use spores to reproduce. The funguslike protists include the slime molds, water molds, and downy mildews.
Protozoa - Sarcodines http://www.infovisual.info/02/003_en.html Entamoeba histolytica A disease causing amoeba in humans. This amoeba can bore into the intestinal wall and enter the bloodstream and may cause liver abscesses. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Trophozoites_of_Entamoeba_histolytica_with_ingested_erythrocytes.JPG
Protozoa - Ciliates http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/419708/enlarge Paramecium bursaria A freshwater protist that moves with cilia. This paramecium has numerous autotrophic algae living in its cytoplasm. The algae provide sugars and oxygen while being protected within the much larger ciliate. http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookdiversity_3.html Didinium sp.
Protozoa - Ciliates Spirostomum ambiguum Spirostomum sp. are among the largest protists at up to 4 mm. They are free-living, aquatic ciliates that are cylindrical and worm-like. Blepharisma undulans Blepharisma sp. Are heterotrophic ciliates that feed on bacteria. They are unusual in that many species have a pink to reddish color. Blepharismas can reproduce by binary fission or conjugation. http://virtuelle.gefil.de/s-hess/protoz.html
Ciliates Binary Fission – asexual reproduction. The ciliate copies its DNA and divides in half. Two identical daughter cells are produced. Conjugation – sexual reproduction; exchange of micronuclei (gentic innformation). http://www.nvsd44.bc.ca/Staff/UZ/VondetteN10030/Biology%2011/Ch%2018/Ch %2018%20Lab.aspx
Protozoa - Flagellates http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/364931/enlargehttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/364918/enlarge Flagellates Giardia lamblia is an intestinal parasite in humans. Trichonympha campanula is a flagellate that lives in the intestines of termites. Mutualism: symbiosis where both partners benefit.
Anatomy of a Flagellate Giardia lamblia is a flagellate protist that lives in freshwater streams, rivers, and lakes. Drinking water containing these protists causes a serious intestinal condition called hiker’s disease.
Parasitic Protozoa Parasitic protozoa: feed on the cells and body fluids of their hosts. These protozoa often have very complex life cycles involving multiple hosts. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. People with malaria often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness. Left untreated, they may develop severe complications and die. In 2008, an estimated 190 - 311 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide and 708,000 - 1,003,000 people died, most of them young children in sub- Saharan Africa. http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Plasmodium.jpg
Parasitic Protozoa Parasitic protozoa feed on the cells and body fluids of their hosts. These protozoa often have very complex life cycles involving multiple hosts. http://www.travelhealth.co.uk/diseases/malaria_lifcycle.htm http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/370255/view
Parasitic Protozoa Parasitic protozoa :feed on the cells and body fluids of their hosts. These protozoa often have very complex life cycles involving multiple hosts. Toxoplasma gondii The cause of toxoplasmosis – which can be flu-like, cause disease of the eyes, or severe infection of unborn children in the womb. http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/toxoplasmosis/
Parasitic Protozoa Parasitic protozoa feed on the cells and body fluids of their hosts. These protozoans often have very complex life cycles involving multiple hosts. Toxoplasma gondii Because the parasite is present in cat feces, pregnant women should not change cat litter boxes. Unborn children can develop severe disease of the eyes and nervous system from T. gondii. http://mmbr.asm.org/content/64/3/607.fullhttp://www.cdc.gov/parasites/toxoplasmosis/gen_info/pregnant.html
Parasitic Protozoa Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the parasitic protozoa Leishmania species. Leishmaniasis is transmitted to humans by the bite of the sand fly. Infections in the United States are very rare. This parasite has a single flagellum and attacks the white blood cells, spleen, and liver. It can also cause disfiguring lesions on the skin and mucous membranes.