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Chapter 8 Digestive System. Objectives  Identify the organs of the digestive system  Determine root words, prefixes and suffixes appropriate to this.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Digestive System. Objectives  Identify the organs of the digestive system  Determine root words, prefixes and suffixes appropriate to this."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Digestive System

2 Objectives  Identify the organs of the digestive system  Determine root words, prefixes and suffixes appropriate to this system  Identify portions of the tooth  Identify and define some common disorders  Identify and explain medical treatments and procedures pertaining to the digestive system

3 Gastroenterology  Branch of medicine specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, conditions, affecting the lower gastrointestinal tract. (GI tract)  Gastroenterologist is the physician who treats abnormal conditions of the GI tract

4 Digestive system  Also called the gastrointestinal system or  Alimentary system (Latin alimentum) means nourishment  Provides a tube like passage through a maze of organs and body cavities  Begins at the mouth  Ends at the anus

5 The three main functions:  Digestion  Absorption  Elimination

6 Digestion  Complex food material is taken in through the mouth and is digested (broken down)  Digestive enzymes speed up chemical reactions and aid in the break down of complex nutrients  Complex proteins are digested to amino acids

7 Digestion contd:  Complicated sugars are reduced to simple sugars such as glucose  Large fat molecules are broken down into fatty acids and triglycerides

8 Absorption:  Takes place when the digested food is absorbed into the blood stream  It is absorbed by going through the walls of the small intestine  Fatty acids and glycerol enter the lymphatic vessels mostly

9 Absorption contd:  By this method valuable nutrients such as sugar, fatty acids and amino acids, travel to all cells of the body  Cells then catabolize (burn) nutrients in the presence of oxygen to release energy stored within the food  Cells also use amino acid nutrients to anabolize (build) large protein molecules needed for growth and development

10 Elimination:  Third function is the elimination of solid waste material that cannot be absorbed into the blood stream.  The large intestine concentrates these solid wastes and pass it out of the body through the anus  The waste is commonly known as ‘feces’

11 Organs of the Digestive system  Mouth = or/o pertaining to the oral cavity  Also known as the buccal cavity  Includes the lips surround the opening to the cavity Cheeks: form the walls of the oval shaped cavity Hard palate: forms the anterior portion of the roof of the mouth Soft palate: muscular portion behind the hard palate. Made up of skeletal muscle and connective tissue

12 Mouth contd:  Rugae: Are irregular ridges in the mucous membrane covering the anterior portion of the hard palate  Uvula: small soft tissue projection, hangs from the soft palate. Aids in sound and speech  Tonsils: masses of lymphatic tissue located in depressions of the mucous membranes. They act as filters to protect the body from the invasion of microorganism

13 Mouth contd:  Tongue: solid, strong, flexible structure covered with mucous membranes.  It extends across the floor of the oral cavity, and muscles attach it to the lower jaw bone (mandible)  It moves food around during chewing (mastication) and swallowing (deglutition)  Principle organ for taste

14 Mouth contd:  Papillae: small raised areas on the tongue  Contain taste buds  Gums: Fleshy tissue that surround the sockets of the teeth

15 Teeth:  Every individual has two sets of teeth in their lifetime. The shape of the tooth determines its name  First set is ‘baby teeth’ (usually beginning to appear around age 6 months) are the primary teeth or deciduous teeth) and usually consist of 20 teeth.  Second set ‘permanent teeth’ (usually starting at age 6 years) consist of 32 teeth  Molar usually appear at age 17 years

16 Pharynx:  Also known as the throat  A muscular tube lined with mucous membranes  Food passes from the mouth to the pharynx to the esophagus  Passageway for air traveling from the nose to the windpipe

17 Esophagus:  9 to 10 inch muscular tube from pharynx to stomach  Transports the food by means of peristalsis (involuntary process of wave like contractions)

18 Esophagus  the tube that connects your mouth and your stomach

19 Stomach:  Food passes from esophagus to stomach  Made up of the Fundus – upper potion, body- middle portion, and antrum- lower portion

20 Stomach contd:  Lining consists of folds called Rugae  This allows the stomach to stretch when food enters  Sphincters are rings of muscle that control the openings into and from the stomach  The cardiac sphincter relaxes and contracts moving food from the esophagus into the stomach

21 Stomach contd:  Pyloric sphincter allows food to leave the stomach when it has been broken down  Food is churned and mixed with gastric juices to make semi liquid called chyme  The stomach controls passage of food into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum)  Food leaves the stomach in 1 to 4 hours or more

22 Small intestine:  Also known as small bowel  Extends from the pyloric sphincter to the first part of the large intestine  It is about 21 feet long  Three parts; duodenum, jejunum, ileum.  Completes digestion by way of intestinal enzymes, pancreatic enzymes and bile from the liver

23 Large Intestine:  Extends from the end of the ileum to the anus  Four parts: cecum, colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum  About five feet long  Absorbs about 80% to 90% of fluids and electrolytes  Excretes waste and feces

24 Accessory Organs:  Salivary glands  Liver  Gallbladder  Pancreas

25 Salivary Glands:  Around the oral cavity there are three pairs of salivary glands.  Parotid gland, Submandibular gland, Sublingual gland  These glands produce saliva, which contain digestive enzymes  Narrow salivary ducts carry the saliva into the oral cavity

26 Liver:  Produces a thick greenish fluid called bile  Bile contains cholesterol, bile acids, and several bile pigments  Bile is continuously released from the liver  It then travels down the hepatic duct to the cystic duct which leads to the gallbladder which stores the bile

27 Liver contd:  Bile acts as an emulsifying agent on large fat globules  Without bile most of the fat in the body remains undigested  The liver also maintains normal blood glucose  Manufactures blood protein particularly the ones used for blood clotting  Remove poisons from the blood

28 Gall bladder:  Stores bile from the liver until needed in the duodenum to aid in digestion  We can do without our gallbladder  If removed bile will find another home in the biliary ducts to continue its process

29 Pancreas:  Both an exocrine and endocrine organ  As an exocrine gland it produces enzymes to digest starch, fat, and proteins  As an endocrine gland it secretes insulin, which is used as a carrier to bring glucose into cells of the body for energy

30 Root words:  An/oAnus  Appendic/oAppendix  Bil/IGall, bile  Bucc/oCheek (Facial)  Cec/oBelly  Cheio/oSaliva  Chol/eGall, bile

31 Root Words contd:  Cholecyst/oGall bladder  Col/o Colon/oColon  Dent/oTeeth  Duoden/oDuodenum  Enter/oSmall intestine  Esophag/oEsophagus

32 Root words contd:  Gastr/oStomach  Gingiv/oGums  Gluc/oSugar  Glyc/oSugar  Hepat/oLiver  Ile/oIleum  Jejun/oJejunum

33 Root words contd:  Labi/oLips  Lingu/oTongue  Gloss/oTongue  Lip/oFat, lipids  Or/o Mouth, oral  Pancreat/oPancreas  Peritone/oPeritoneum

34 Root words contd:  Pharyng/oPharynx  Proct/oAnus, rectum  Rect/oRectum  Sigmoid/oSigmoid colon  Splen/oSpleen

35 Prefix:  Re-Back  Retro-Backward, back

36 Suffix:  -aseEnzyme  -fluxFlow  -iasisAbnormal condition  -lithiasisstone  -lyticdestruction, breakdown  -pepsiadigestion  -prandialmeal

37 Suffix contd:  -orrhaphysuturing  -ostomyartificial opening  -tresiaopening  -tripsycrushing

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