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Chapter 8 Digestive System.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Digestive System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Digestive System

2 Objectives Identify the organs of the digestive system
Determine root words, prefixes and suffixes appropriate to this system Identify portions of the tooth Identify and define some common disorders Identify and explain medical treatments and procedures pertaining to the digestive system

3 Gastroenterology Branch of medicine specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, conditions, affecting the lower gastrointestinal tract. (GI tract) Gastroenterologist is the physician who treats abnormal conditions of the GI tract

4 Digestive system Also called the gastrointestinal system or
Alimentary system (Latin alimentum) means nourishment Provides a tube like passage through a maze of organs and body cavities Begins at the mouth Ends at the anus

5 The three main functions:
Digestion Absorption Elimination

6 Digestion Complex food material is taken in through the mouth and is digested (broken down) Digestive enzymes speed up chemical reactions and aid in the break down of complex nutrients Complex proteins are digested to amino acids

7 Digestion contd: Complicated sugars are reduced to simple sugars such as glucose Large fat molecules are broken down into fatty acids and triglycerides

8 Absorption: Takes place when the digested food is absorbed into the blood stream It is absorbed by going through the walls of the small intestine Fatty acids and glycerol enter the lymphatic vessels mostly

9 Absorption contd: By this method valuable nutrients such as sugar, fatty acids and amino acids, travel to all cells of the body Cells then catabolize (burn) nutrients in the presence of oxygen to release energy stored within the food Cells also use amino acid nutrients to anabolize (build) large protein molecules needed for growth and development

10 Elimination: Third function is the elimination of solid waste material that cannot be absorbed into the blood stream. The large intestine concentrates these solid wastes and pass it out of the body through the anus The waste is commonly known as ‘feces’

11 Organs of the Digestive system
Mouth = or/o pertaining to the oral cavity Also known as the buccal cavity Includes the lips surround the opening to the cavity Cheeks: form the walls of the oval shaped cavity Hard palate: forms the anterior portion of the roof of the mouth Soft palate: muscular portion behind the hard palate. Made up of skeletal muscle and connective tissue

12 Mouth contd: Rugae: Are irregular ridges in the mucous membrane covering the anterior portion of the hard palate Uvula: small soft tissue projection , hangs from the soft palate. Aids in sound and speech Tonsils: masses of lymphatic tissue located in depressions of the mucous membranes. They act as filters to protect the body from the invasion of microorganism

13 Mouth contd: Tongue: solid, strong, flexible structure covered with mucous membranes. It extends across the floor of the oral cavity, and muscles attach it to the lower jaw bone (mandible) It moves food around during chewing (mastication) and swallowing (deglutition) Principle organ for taste

14 Mouth contd: Papillae: small raised areas on the tongue
Contain taste buds Gums: Fleshy tissue that surround the sockets of the teeth

15 Teeth: Every individual has two sets of teeth in their lifetime. The shape of the tooth determines its name First set is ‘baby teeth’ (usually beginning to appear around age 6 months) are the primary teeth or deciduous teeth) and usually consist of 20 teeth. Second set ‘permanent teeth’ (usually starting at age 6 years) consist of 32 teeth Molar usually appear at age 17 years

16 Pharynx: Also known as the throat
A muscular tube lined with mucous membranes Food passes from the mouth to the pharynx to the esophagus Passageway for air traveling from the nose to the windpipe

17 Esophagus: 9 to 10 inch muscular tube from pharynx to stomach
Transports the food by means of peristalsis (involuntary process of wave like contractions)

18 Esophagus the tube that connects your mouth and your stomach

19 Stomach: Food passes from esophagus to stomach
Made up of the Fundus – upper potion, body- middle portion, and antrum- lower portion

20 Stomach contd: Lining consists of folds called Rugae
This allows the stomach to stretch when food enters Sphincters are rings of muscle that control the openings into and from the stomach The cardiac sphincter relaxes and contracts moving food from the esophagus into the stomach

21 Stomach contd: Pyloric sphincter allows food to leave the stomach when it has been broken down Food is churned and mixed with gastric juices to make semi liquid called chyme The stomach controls passage of food into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum) Food leaves the stomach in 1 to 4 hours or more

22 Small intestine: Also known as small bowel
Extends from the pyloric sphincter to the first part of the large intestine It is about 21 feet long Three parts; duodenum, jejunum, ileum. Completes digestion by way of intestinal enzymes, pancreatic enzymes and bile from the liver

23 Large Intestine: Extends from the end of the ileum to the anus
Four parts: cecum, colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum About five feet long Absorbs about 80% to 90% of fluids and electrolytes Excretes waste and feces

24 Accessory Organs: Salivary glands Liver Gallbladder Pancreas

25 Salivary Glands: Around the oral cavity there are three pairs of salivary glands. Parotid gland, Submandibular gland, Sublingual gland These glands produce saliva, which contain digestive enzymes Narrow salivary ducts carry the saliva into the oral cavity

26 Liver: Produces a thick greenish fluid called bile
Bile contains cholesterol, bile acids, and several bile pigments Bile is continuously released from the liver It then travels down the hepatic duct to the cystic duct which leads to the gallbladder which stores the bile

27 Liver contd: Bile acts as an emulsifying agent on large fat globules
Without bile most of the fat in the body remains undigested The liver also maintains normal blood glucose Manufactures blood protein particularly the ones used for blood clotting Remove poisons from the blood

28 Gall bladder: Stores bile from the liver until needed in the duodenum to aid in digestion We can do without our gallbladder If removed bile will find another home in the biliary ducts to continue its process

29 Pancreas: Both an exocrine and endocrine organ
As an exocrine gland it produces enzymes to digest starch, fat, and proteins As an endocrine gland it secretes insulin, which is used as a carrier to bring glucose into cells of the body for energy

30 Root words: An/o Anus Appendic/o Appendix Bil/I Gall, bile
Bucc/o Cheek (Facial) Cec/o Belly Cheio/o Saliva Chol/e Gall, bile

31 Root Words contd: Cholecyst/o Gall bladder Col/o Colon/o Colon
Dent/o Teeth Duoden/o Duodenum Enter/o Small intestine Esophag/o Esophagus

32 Root words contd: Gastr/o Stomach Gingiv/o Gums Gluc/o Sugar
Glyc/o Sugar Hepat/o Liver Ile/o Ileum Jejun/o Jejunum

33 Root words contd: Labi/o Lips Lingu/o Tongue Gloss/o Tongue
Lip/o Fat, lipids Or/o Mouth, oral Pancreat/o Pancreas Peritone/o Peritoneum

34 Root words contd: Pharyng/o Pharynx Proct/o Anus, rectum Rect/o Rectum
Sigmoid/o Sigmoid colon Splen/o Spleen

35 Prefix: Re- Back Retro- Backward, back

36 Suffix: -ase Enzyme -flux Flow -iasis Abnormal condition
-lithiasis stone -lytic destruction, breakdown -pepsia digestion -prandial meal

37 Suffix contd: -orrhaphy suturing -ostomy artificial opening
-tresia opening -tripsy crushing

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