2DigestionProcess of breaking down food into usable materials
3MouthMechanical Digestion- physically breaking food down into smaller pieces, increases surface area so digestive juices and enzymes have more area to interact with our food Carried out by our teeth cutting, crushing and chewing our food. Also aided by our tongue(muscle) which helps to mash and initiate the swallowing response
4MouthChemical Digestion- the changing of complex food molecules (Carbohydrates, Starches, Proteins) into simpler substances that can be absorbed into our blood stream and used by our cells.
5MouthChemical digestion begins in the mouth, saliva acts on starches beginning to break them into simple sugars. Saliva also helps to soften and lubricate our food for its trip through the digestive tract Amylase is the enzyme in our saliva that begins chemical digestion. It breaks starches down into simple sugars
6MouthOur teeth, tongue and saliva work on the food we eat to create a soggy ball of food and saliva called a bolus. When the bolus is moved to the back of the mouth the swallowing response is triggered.
7MouthWhen the bolus is swallowed it is passed from the mouth to the esophagus. The mouth is about 11cm long.
8EsophagusThe esophagus is a 25cm tube that’s connects the mouth to the stomach. It is one of two tubes in the throat, the other is the trachea which leads to our lungs. The epiglottis covers the trachea when we swallow to keep food and liquids from entering our lungs.
9EsophagusIf food gets lodged or stuck in the back of the throat before the epiglottis, choking can occur.
10EsophagusFood is moved down the esophagus by muscular contractions called peristalsis, a squeezing motion that pushes food through our digestive system.
11PeristalsisWave-like contractions of smooth muscle that line our digestive tract to keep food moving through our digestive system. Smooth muscle is muscle that we do not consciously control, so digestion is an involuntary response.
12EsophagusAt the end of the esophagus is a valve that keeps food and digestive juices from the stomach from backing up into the esophagus. These valves are circular muscles called sphincters
13EsophagusIf stomach acid comes up past the sphincter muscle into the esophagus you may experience pain often called heartburn. Heartburn has nothing to do with your heart, but because the pain seems to be where the heart is it was originally called heartburn. In bad cases stomach acid can actually begin to eat at the esophagus.
14StomachThe stomach is a 22cm long organ surrounded by three layers of smooth muscle. Each layer of muscle runs in a different direction to make sure our food is thoroughly mashed. The mashing of the stomach muscles is a type of ________________ digestion.
15StomachThe stomach wall contains many glands that secrete digestive juices and mucus. Mucus is needed to protect the stomach wall from the acids and digestive enzymes needed to chemically break down our food.
16StomachIf the glands do not produce enough mucus to keep the stomach wall covered the digestive juices will begin eating at the stomach wall causing an ulcer
17StomachThe Stomach’s digestive juice is made up of Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) and an enzyme called pepsin. These two compounds work together to chemically digest proteins. Stomach contains HCl and pepsin to digest proteins. The work of the stomach muscles and digestive juices turn the food we eat into Chyme.
18Small IntestineChyme enters the small intestine a little at the time through the pyloric sphincter. The first portion of the small intestine is very important and has been named the duodenum. The duodenum is the first 25cm of the small intestines. In this section of the small intestine most chemical digestion occurs.
19Small IntestineIn the duodenum, bile from the liver and gallbladder as well as Pancreatic Juice from the pancreas go to work to finish digesting our food. Pancreatic Juice- basic to neutralize stomach acid, packed with enzymes to digest carbohydrates, proteins and fats
20Small IntestinePancreas secretes about 1.5 liters of pancreatic juice a day. Without the enzymes in the pancreatic juice our bodies would not be able to break down the foods we eat and get the nutrients we our body needs.
21Small IntestineOur Liver produces bile, which is stored and concentrated in the gall bladder. Also in the duodenum bile is added to the chyme from our stomach to break down fats. Bile is a lot like dish soap, it breaks large fat molecules into smaller fat globules. These now smaller fat globules are broken down further by bile and pancreatic juices.
22Small IntestineFats are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol that can be absorbed into the blood stream and used by our cells. The rest of the 690 cm long small intestine is lined with folds containing villi and microvilli. Villi and microvilli are small finger like straws that absorb the digested nutrients into our bloodstream.
23Small IntestineAbsorption- process in which digested nutrients pass through the wall of the small intestine into the bloodstream. The small intestine is responsible for absorbing the nutrients from our digested food.
24Large IntestineThe large intestine is a 152 cm long, its job is to remove water and minerals from the undigested food.The large intestine doesn’t produce any enzymes because all of the food that can be digested has been broken down.
25Large IntestineThe Large Intestine is also referred to as the colon. At the end of the large intestine is 14 cm vault called the rectum. The rectum stores and compacts undigested food, called feces, until it can be eliminated through the anus.
26ReviewThe Mouth carries out mechanical digestion and chemically digests carbohydrates and starches using the enzyme amylase that’s in our saliva The Stomach carries out mechanical digestion by mashing our food with 3 layers of muscle Chemically the stomach uses gastric juice made up of HCl and pepsin to digest proteins
27ReviewThe Small Intestine is responsible for most chemical digestion in our body The duodenum or first 25cm of the small intestine is where bile and pancreatic juice chemically digest carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The rest of the small intestine is full of villi that absorb the digested nutrients into our bloodstream
28ReviewMaterials that were not digested or absorbed in the small intestine or passed to the large intestine. The large intestine absorbs water and minerals from the undigested matter (feces) and compacts it for excretion through the anus.
29ReviewCarbohydrates Starches and sugars are broken down by amylase to simple sugars like glucose that can be used by our cells for energy Protein Protein is broken down by gastric juice in the stomach to amino acids so our cells can build the proteins our body needs
30ReviewFats Fats are broken down by bile and pancreatic juice into lipids, glycerol, and fatty acids that can be used for energy, cushioning and insulation in our body.
31TestStudents need to be able to: Label a diagram of the digestive system Identify the function of each organ and which nutrient group is digested Identify which enzyme or digestive juice breaks down each nutrient