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April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach1 2. General features of empirical studies Nine general features of empirical studies on the effects of non-parental.

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Presentation on theme: "April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach1 2. General features of empirical studies Nine general features of empirical studies on the effects of non-parental."— Presentation transcript:

1 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach1 2. General features of empirical studies Nine general features of empirical studies on the effects of non-parental care and education: Interventions studies, mainly:Interventions studies, mainly:  (quasi-)experimental studies  model-programs for children from disadvantaged families  extensive programs including also other assistance for the families 1.Intervention studies or studies on regular care and education programs

2 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach2 2. General features of empirical studies Interventions studies, cont.:Interventions studies, cont.:  located at universities or research centers  good quality (e.g. teacher-child-relation, class size, teacher training) Studies of regular programs, mainly:Studies of regular programs, mainly:  regular programs for non selected groups of children and families  larger samples of children and families and types of programs of varying quality 1.Intervention studies or studies on regular care and education programs

3 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach3 2. General features of empirical studies Specific programsSpecific programs  selected types of care and education, like preschools for children aged 3 to 5 or day care settings  control of basis necessary Cumulative care historyCumulative care history  aggregated effects of settings in the care history  starting very early (before children visit non-parental care and education settings) 2.Effects of specific programs or effects of the cumulative care history

4 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach4 2. General features of empirical studies Hypothesis: The dose of quality is impor- tant!Hypothesis: The dose of quality is impor- tant! i.e. quality and quantity are important:i.e. quality and quantity are important:  duration (number of months of care),  amount (number of hours per day or week),  begin of non-parental care at all or of a specific setting,  stability of the care situation und a specific care setting 3.Quality and its dose

5 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach5 2. General features of empirical studies Different families may select different settings within a type.Different families may select different settings within a type. Different variables may be controlled, e.g.:Different variables may be controlled, e.g.:  education of parents  socioeconomic status  depression of mothers  attitudes towards maternal employment  level of home stimulation  parental sensibility towards needs of the child 4.Control of family background

6 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach6 2. General features of empirical studies Hypothesis 1: We have to consider both effects simultaneously.Hypothesis 1: We have to consider both effects simultaneously. Hypothesis 2: The difference between the two qualities is important:Hypothesis 2: The difference between the two qualities is important:  If home quality is lower than out of home quality  compensatory effects  If home quality is higher than out of home quality  lost resources Hypothesis 3: The effects of home and out of home quality are additive.Hypothesis 3: The effects of home and out of home quality are additive. 5.Relation between home stimulation and quality of non-parental setting

7 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach7 2. General features of empirical studies Questions 1 for long-term effects: Will the effects continue, diminish or disappear? Or will effects only come up later (sleeper effects)?Questions 1 for long-term effects: Will the effects continue, diminish or disappear? Or will effects only come up later (sleeper effects)? Question 2: Are the effects of the later ex- perienced qualities at school independent of the qualities experienced earlier, do they strengthen or weaken earlier effects?Question 2: Are the effects of the later ex- perienced qualities at school independent of the qualities experienced earlier, do they strengthen or weaken earlier effects? 6.Short-term and long-term effects

8 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach8 2. General features of empirical studies Question 1: Is early non-parental care and education an educational offer for children or a service for mothers?Question 1: Is early non-parental care and education an educational offer for children or a service for mothers? Questions 2: Will early non-parental care strengthen cognitive development at the expense of negative effects on socio- emotional development?Questions 2: Will early non-parental care strengthen cognitive development at the expense of negative effects on socio- emotional development? 7.Multiple criteria

9 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach9 2. General features of empirical studies Calculating effect sizes (Cohen): mean of experimental group minus mean of control group divided by standard deviation of control groupCalculating effect sizes (Cohen): mean of experimental group minus mean of control group divided by standard deviation of control group around.2 = low effects; around.5 = medium effects; greater.8 = high effects Comparison needed with other well known important predictors (e.g., education of mother, family poverty)Comparison needed with other well known important predictors (e.g., education of mother, family poverty) 8.Effect sizes

10 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach10 2. General features of empirical studies Main studies in England and USA - Are re- sults transferable to Portuguese situation?Main studies in England and USA - Are re- sults transferable to Portuguese situation? In general yes because of common histo- rical-cultural traditions.In general yes because of common histo- rical-cultural traditions. Transferability may depend onTransferability may depend on  the analyzed segment of quality  the socio-cultural background the families  the zeitgeist 9.Transferability

11 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach11 2. Definition and measurements of outcomes 1.Mother-child-attachment 2.Socio-emotional competencies (1) social competencies and peer behavior (2) behavior problems 3.Cognitive competencies (1) cognitive, language and mathematical competencies (2) school achievement and school career Three broader areas of outcomes:

12 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach12 2. Definition and measurements of outcomes 2.Examples for socio-emotional competencies (1) social competencies and peer behavior  social skills, social adjustment, social re- sponsibility, cooperative and pro-social be- havior, peer relations, sociability, independ- ence, self control, self-assertion, concentra- tion, working habits (2) behavior problems  disobedience, disciplinary problems, con- flicts with adults, aggressive behavior against other children, anti-social behavior, externali- zations, internalizations, (negative) assertions

13 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach13 2. Definition and measurements of outcomes 2.Examples for cognitive competencies (1) cognitive, language and mathematical competencies (incl. intelligence) (2) school achievement and school career  school achievement in different grades, retention in grade, assignment to special education

14 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach14 2. Definition and measurements of outcomes 1.Observations  especially of social behavior in standardi- zed or natural situations 2.Interviews/questionnaires/reports  standardized reports of parents or care provider (form of rating scales) Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach) Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (Sparrow u.a)  interviews with children Feelings About School Measure FAS (Stipek) Three measurement types:

15 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach15 2. Definition and measurements of outcomes 3.Tests  especially in the area of cognitive development and (school) achievement Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test PPVT (Dunn & Dunn) – receptive language Problem: instruments have to be sensible for effects of non-parental care! Three measurement types:

16 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach16 2. Definition and measurements of quality Research needs a concept of quality which is measurable!Research needs a concept of quality which is measurable! Three dimensions of quality can be distin- guished:Three dimensions of quality can be distin- guished:  structural quality (e.g. the iron triangle: group size, teacher-child-ratio, qualifications of care persons)  process quality (interactions of children with peers, adults and the space-material environment)  (sometimes) quality of educational orien- tations (e.g., attitudes, conception of the child)

17 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach17 2. Definition and measurements of quality Measurement of process quality: Is process quality related to the group in gen- eral or to that what a specific child experi- ences?Is process quality related to the group in gen- eral or to that what a specific child experi- ences? How broad is process quality conceptualized? More global or with regard to specific aspects?How broad is process quality conceptualized? More global or with regard to specific aspects? Three examples:Three examples:

18 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach18 2. Definition and measurements of quality Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale - ECERS ECERS (Harms & Clifford 1980), ECERS-R (Harms, Clifford & Cryer 1998), ECERS-E (Sylva, Siraj-Blatchford & Taggert 2003) used in many studies worldwideECERS (Harms & Clifford 1980), ECERS-R (Harms, Clifford & Cryer 1998), ECERS-E (Sylva, Siraj-Blatchford & Taggert 2003) used in many studies worldwide ECERS-R consists of 43 items in the form of seven-point rating scales, ECERS-E 15 itemsECERS-R consists of 43 items in the form of seven-point rating scales, ECERS-E 15 items ECERS-instruments are administered after an three hour observation by an external raterECERS-instruments are administered after an three hour observation by an external rater

19 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach19 2. Definition and measurements of quality Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale - ECERS ECERS-R covers 7 areas: space and furnish- ings; personal care routines; language and reasoning; activities; interaction; program structure; parents and staffECERS-R covers 7 areas: space and furnish- ings; personal care routines; language and reasoning; activities; interaction; program structure; parents and staff ECERS-E covers 4 areas: literacy; mathemat- ics; science and environment; diversityECERS-E covers 4 areas: literacy; mathemat- ics; science and environment; diversity

20 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach20 2. Definition and measurements of quality Caregiver Interaction Scale (Arnett 1989) often administered together with ECERS- instrumentsoften administered together with ECERS- instruments related to specific aspects of process quality and process quality at the group levelrelated to specific aspects of process quality and process quality at the group level 26 four-point rating scales measuring aspects of the character of the interactions of the care person with the children in the group26 four-point rating scales measuring aspects of the character of the interactions of the care person with the children in the group four areas in the original instrument: positive interactions; punishing behavior; permitting behavior; withdrawal/distance to the childrenfour areas in the original instrument: positive interactions; punishing behavior; permitting behavior; withdrawal/distance to the children

21 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach21 2. Definition and measurements of quality Observational Record of the Caregiving Environ- ment – ORCE (NICHD Study of Early Child Care) developed and used in the NICHD SECCdeveloped and used in the NICHD SECC different versions according to age groupsdifferent versions according to age groups related to the quality a specific target child experiences and to specific aspects of quality (behavior of care person)related to the quality a specific target child experiences and to specific aspects of quality (behavior of care person) combination of time sampling with ratingscombination of time sampling with ratings sometimes use of an indicator for “overall positive caregiving quality”sometimes use of an indicator for “overall positive caregiving quality”

22 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach22 3. Examples of studies Two types of studies: Studies on regular care and education programsStudies on regular care and education programs Intervention programs/model projectsIntervention programs/model projects

23 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach23 3. Examples of studies Cost, Quality, and Child Outcomes in Child Care Centers – CQC-Study: study of the effects of specific programsstudy of the effects of specific programs 4 states in USA – California, Colorado, Connecticut, North Carolina4 states in USA – California, Colorado, Connecticut, North Carolina longitudinal study of cognitive and socio- emotional development - from 4 to 8 years of agelongitudinal study of cognitive and socio- emotional development - from 4 to 8 years of age

24 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach24 3. Examples of studies Cost, Quality, and Child Outcomes in Child Care Centers – CQC-Study: Measurement points CQC-Study 4 years (1993) 5 years (1994) 6 years (1995) 8 years (1997) Measurement of outcomes 1. MP 2. MP 3. MP5. MP 4.4. MP MP

25 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach25 3. Examples of studies Cost, Quality, and Child Outcomes in Child Care Centers – CQC-Study: start sample: 826 children from 183 groups in 176 preschools – at age 8: 418 children (out of 160 of the 183 original groups)start sample: 826 children from 183 groups in 176 preschools – at age 8: 418 children (out of 160 of the 183 original groups) observation of quality in the preschoolsobservation of quality in the preschools literature  Peisner-Feinberg et al. 1999, 2001literature  Peisner-Feinberg et al. 1999, 2001

26 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach26 3. Examples of studies European Child Care and Education Study – ECCE-Study study of the effects of specific programsstudy of the effects of specific programs 4 countries in Europe  Austria, Germany, Portugal (only phase 1) and Spain4 countries in Europe  Austria, Germany, Portugal (only phase 1) and Spain longitudinal study of cognitive and socio- emotional development - from 4 to 8 years of agelongitudinal study of cognitive and socio- emotional development - from 4 to 8 years of age

27 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach27 3. Examples of studies European Child Care and Education Study – ECCE-Study Measurement points ECCE-Study Measurement of outcomes 1. MP 3. MP 2. MP 4. MP (only Germany) 5. MP 8;6 years (1998) 6;6 years (1996) 4 years (autumn 1993 to summer 1994)

28 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach28 3. Examples of studies European Child Care and Education Study – ECCE-Study start sample: children from 314 groups in 314 preschools (Austria: 152 children from 43 groups; Germany: 422 from 103; Portugal: 345 from 88; Spain: 325 from 80) – at age 8: 586 children from 206 of the original groups, now in 390 elementary school classes (Austria 107 children; Germany 306; Spain 173)start sample: children from 314 groups in 314 preschools (Austria: 152 children from 43 groups; Germany: 422 from 103; Portugal: 345 from 88; Spain: 325 from 80) – at age 8: 586 children from 206 of the original groups, now in 390 elementary school classes (Austria 107 children; Germany 306; Spain 173) observations of quality in the preschoolsobservations of quality in the preschools literature  ECCE-Study Group 1997, 1999literature  ECCE-Study Group 1997, 1999

29 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach29 3. Examples of studies Effective Provision of Pre-School Education – EPPE-Project study of the effects of specific programsstudy of the effects of specific programs different regions in Englanddifferent regions in England longitudinal study of cognitive and socio- emotional development - from 3 or 4 years (entry in the study) to entry in primary school, additional measurement points end grade 1 (age 6) and 2 (age 7)longitudinal study of cognitive and socio- emotional development - from 3 or 4 years (entry in the study) to entry in primary school, additional measurement points end grade 1 (age 6) and 2 (age 7)

30 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach30 3. Examples of studies Effective Provision of Pre-School Education – EPPE-Project Further measurement points are planned Measurement points EPPE Project 3 Jahre (1999) till age 11 (2008) Rrecruit- ment of sample 7 years (2003) 4 years (2000) 6 years (2002) 1. MP 2. MP 4. MP 3. MP Measurement of outcomes 5 years (2001)

31 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach31 3. Examples of studies Effective Provision of Pre-School Education – EPPE-Project Start sample: children from 141 pre- school settings (nursery classes, play- groups, local authority day nurseries, private day nurseries, nursery schools, integrated centres) - at entry into primary school 770 different Primary Schools; plus 314 children without preschool - at entry into primary school 96 different Primary SchoolsStart sample: children from 141 pre- school settings (nursery classes, play- groups, local authority day nurseries, private day nurseries, nursery schools, integrated centres) - at entry into primary school 770 different Primary Schools; plus 314 children without preschool - at entry into primary school 96 different Primary Schools observations of quality in all pre-schoolsobservations of quality in all pre-schools

32 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach32 3. Examples of studies Effective Provision of Pre-School Education – EPPE-Project Design of the study is planned to conduct multi-level analyses.Design of the study is planned to conduct multi-level analyses. literature: Sammons et al. 2002, 2003, 2004 a, 2004 b, Sylva et al. 2004bliterature: Sammons et al. 2002, 2003, 2004 a, 2004 b, Sylva et al. 2004b

33 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach33 3. Examples of studies Study of Early Child Care (SECC), National In- stitute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) study of the effects of the cumulative care historystudy of the effects of the cumulative care history 10 sites in the USA10 sites in the USA longitudinal study of cognitive and socio- emotional development - from first month of life onlongitudinal study of cognitive and socio- emotional development - from first month of life on

34 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach34 3. Examples of studies Study of Early Child Care (SECC), National In- stitute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Measurement points SECC Measurement of outcomes further measurement points planned 1 and 6 months (91) 15 months (92) 2 years (93) 4;6 and 5 years (95 to 98) 3 years (94) 6 years (99/ 00) 7 years (00/ 01) 8 years (01/ 02) 9 years (02/ 03) 10 years (03/ 04) 11 years (04/ 05) 15 Jahre (2008/ 2009) 1. MP 2. MP 3. MP 5. MP 4. MP 9. MP 6. MP 7. MP 10. MP 11. MP 8. MP 13. MP 12. MP

35 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach35 3. Examples of studies Study of Early Child Care (SECC), National In- stitute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) start sample: children – at age 4; childrenstart sample: children – at age 4; children non-maternal care settings = at least 10 hours per week care by a person other than the mother – all non-maternal settings are observednon-maternal care settings = at least 10 hours per week care by a person other than the mother – all non-maternal settings are observed literature: http.//secc.rti.orgliterature: http.//secc.rti.org

36 April 7/8, 2006Hans-Guenther Rossbach36 3. Examples of studies Perry Preschool Project intervention study, experimental designintervention study, experimental design random assignment of 123 children (low IQ, from highly disadvantaged families), 58 children in intervention grouprandom assignment of 123 children (low IQ, from highly disadvantaged families), 58 children in intervention group children in the intervention group visited at the age of 3 and 4 a two-year high quality programchildren in the intervention group visited at the age of 3 and 4 a two-year high quality program children from both groups are followed up till age 39/41children from both groups are followed up till age 39/41 literature: Schweinhart/Barnes/Weikart 1993 (and internet)literature: Schweinhart/Barnes/Weikart 1993 (and internet)


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