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Massachusetts Early Care and Education and School Readiness Study Wendy Wagner Robeson, Ed.D. Joanne Roberts, Ph.D. Nancy Marshall, Ed.D. Wellesley College.

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Presentation on theme: "Massachusetts Early Care and Education and School Readiness Study Wendy Wagner Robeson, Ed.D. Joanne Roberts, Ph.D. Nancy Marshall, Ed.D. Wellesley College."— Presentation transcript:

1 Massachusetts Early Care and Education and School Readiness Study Wendy Wagner Robeson, Ed.D. Joanne Roberts, Ph.D. Nancy Marshall, Ed.D. Wellesley College Center for Research on Women

2 Research Questions What are the characteristics of the preschool classrooms that make a difference in school readiness outcomes for children? How does this vary by race, ethnicity, gender and income differences among children? What are the relative impacts of the quality of infant care and preschool care on children’s school readiness? How do the hours of early care and education relate to children’s school readiness outcomes?

3 Sample Employs two samples 236 children followed since infancy (ACF grant # 90YE0048 Family Income, Infant Child Care and Child Development) 160 low-income children recruited during the preschool year before kindergarten

4 Defining School Readiness Five domains Health and physical development Social and emotional development Approaches to learning Language development and communication Cognition and general knowledge

5 Conceptual Framework: Logic Model 1 InputsProcessesShort-term OutcomesLong-term Outcomes  Children: gender, age, race/ethnicity, hours of care  Families: Income, Household structure, Parental employment & education, Literacy & relational environment  Centers: Teacher qualifications, center size, type of center (half- day, part-week, full-time)  early literacy environment  early math environment  caregiver- child interactions  social environment  curriculum  safety and health environment  language development and communication  cognition and general knowledge, including early math skills  social and emotional development  approaches to learning  health and physical development  School performance  Reduced grade retention  Reduced need for special education  Reduced delinquency  Healthy adult relationships and employment  Proposed study 

6 Overview of Approach: Logic Model 2 AssumptionsInputs Data Sources AssessmentsOutputsOutcomes and Impact Research Questions and Hypotheses Advisory Board Research Team Centers Children & Families ACF Infant Outcomes Sample (N=236 children) Low Income Sample (N=160 children) Observations of classroom environments Assessments of children’s Outcomes Analyses to address research questions and hypotheses Journal articles Community New knowledge Improved policies & strategies to address school readiness

7 Links among Research Questions, Hypotheses, Data Sources & Variables RQ1. What are the characteristics of preschool classrooms that make a difference in school readiness outcomes for children? How does this vary by race, ethnicity, gender and income differences among children? H1. Children who attend preschool classrooms higher quality characteristics (early literacy and math environments, caregiver- child relationships, social environment, curriculum, safety and health environment) will have better scores on school readiness measures. ACF Infant Outcomes Sample Low-Income Sample Preschool classroom variables Preschool children’s school readiness: health and physical development, social and emotional development, approaches to learning, language and communicative abilities, and cognition and general knowledge H2. The characteristics of preschool classrooms will have a greater impact on school readiness for low- income children than for higher-income children, and a greater impact on race/ethnic minority children than for non- Hispanic white (majority) children. ACF Infant Outcomes Sample Low-Income Sample Family income and household membership, race/ethnicity Preschool classroom variables Preschool children’s school readiness (see above)

8 Links among Research Questions, Hypotheses, Data Sources & Variables RQ2. What are the relative impacts of the quality of infant care and preschool care on children’s school readiness, assessed in the preschool year? H3. Children from higher quality infant classrooms will have better scores on school readiness measured in their preschool year.  ACF Infant Outcomes Sample Infant classroom variables Preschool children’s school readiness H4. Children in higher quality preschool classrooms will have better scores on school readiness measured in their preschool year.  ACF Infant Outcomes Sample  Low-Income Sample Preschool classroom variables Preschool children’s school readiness H5. Concurrent environments (preschool classrooms) will have a greater impact on school readiness than infant classroom environments.  ACF Infant Outcomes Sample Infant classroom variables Preschool classroom variables Preschool children’s school readiness H6. Children in higher quality infant classrooms will show greater improvement over time (change) in language outcomes and social outcomes.  ACF Infant Outcomes Sample Language and social emotional development at 12-, 24- and 36- months Preschool children’s school readiness

9 Links among Research Questions, Hypotheses, Data Sources & Variables RQ3. How do the hours of early care and early education relate to children’s outcomes? H7. For low-income children, hours of preschool will be positively associated with greater school readiness. For moderate- and higher-income children, hours of preschool will not be significantly associated with school readiness.  ACF Infant Outcomes Sample  Low-Income Sample Number of hours of preschool care Family Income and household structure Preschool children’s school readiness H8a.Greater hours of child care and early education in infancy and preschool will be associated with better cognitive outcomes in the preschool year.  ACF Infant Outcomes Sample Number of hours of care in infancy Number of hours of care in preschool children’s cognitive and language outcomes H8b.Greater hours in child care and early education in infancy and preschool will be associated with more externalizing behaviors in children. These relationships will be moderated by centers’ group size, ratios and quality of supervision and classroom management.  ACF Infant Outcomes Sample Number of hours of care in infancy Number of hours of care in Preschool Infant classroom variables Preschool classroom variables Children’s externalizing behavior in preschool

10 Family & Child Characteristics Variables & Measures [1][1] Data collected in the Preschool Year will be collected on both Samples. Data collected at 12, 24 and 36 months applies only to the 236 children followed since infancy (ACF grant # 90YE0048 Family Income, Infant Child Care and Child Development) Time Point 12-, 24-,36- mnthsPreschool[1][1] Family income and household structure Family income; household structureXX Family race/ethnicity, language spoken in home Language spoken in the home; Race/ethnicity XX Family employment, education Child gender, ageChild gender, age in monthsXX Family literacy environmentStimQ ReadX Parenting environmentCES-DXX

11 Hours of Care Variables Infant Classroom Variables & Measures Time Point 12-, 24-,36- mnthsPreschool[1][1] Number of hours of care in infancy Hours of care in infancyX Number of hours of Preschool care Hours of care; type of careX Infant classroom environmentInfant Observation Protocol: ITERSX Infant caregiver-child relationships Arnett Global Caregiving Rating ScaleX Infant staff:child ratios & group size Observed staff:child ratio; Group sizeX Infant teacher educationCaregiver education and trainingX [1][1] Data collected in the Preschool Year will be collected on both Samples. Data collected at 12, 24 and 36 months applies only to the 236 children followed since infancy (ACF grant # 90YE0048 Family Income, Infant Child Care and Child Development)

12 Preschool Classroom Variables & Measures Time Point 12-, 24-,36- mnthsPreschool[1][1] Preschool early literacy and math environments ECERS-R Language-Reasoning Subscale; ECERS-E; SELA X Preschool caregiver-child relationships Arnett Global Caregiving Rating Scale; Pianta Child-Caregiver Relationship Scale X Preschool social environmentECERS-R Interaction subscaleX Preschool curriculumECERS-R Activities and Program Structure subscales X Preschool safety and health environment ECERS-R Space & Furnishings and Personal Care Routines subscales X Preschool staff:child ratios & group size Observed staff:child ratio; Group sizeX Preschool teacher educationCaregiver education and trainingX [1][1] Data collected in the Preschool Year will be collected on both Samples. Data collected at 12, 24 and 36 months applies only to the 236 children followed since infancy (ACF grant # 90YE0048 Family Income, Infant Child Care and Child Development)

13 Child Outcome Variables & Measures Time Point 12-, 24-,36- mnthsPreschool Language and social- emotional development at 12-, 24- and 36-months MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory; ASQ:SE; Child Health Condition Survey X Preschool children’s school readiness: health and physical development School Readiness Protocol: Child Health Condition Survey; Height & Weight (BMI) X Preschool children’s school readiness: social and emotional development School Readiness Protocol: ASQ:SE; SSRSX Preschool children’s school readiness: approaches to learning School Readiness Protocol: ECLS-K Approaches to LearningX Preschool children’s school readiness: language and communicative abilities School Readiness Protocol: PPVT-R; Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening; EVT X Preschool children’s school readiness: cognition and general knowledge School Readiness Protocol: Bracken Basic Concept Scale; Woodcock Johnson III: Applied Mathematics X Data collected in the Preschool Year will be collected on both Samples. Data collected at 12, 24 and 36 months applies only to the 236 children followed since infancy (ACF grant # 90YE0048 Family Income, Infant Child Care and Child Development)

14 Significance The proposed study will yield findings: Impact of varying hours of early care and education on children’s school readiness Specific factors in both infant and preschool classrooms that promote children’s school readiness.


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