11 Three Gates for Effective Evaluation FairnessValidityReliability
12 Why do these “gates” matter? Why is it important to understand the 3 “gates” and best practices in educator evaluation?How will you present this information to teachers who may have very different experience with evaluation?
14 Best Practices in Evaluation Basis for evaluationQuality of work – FfT based criteriaStudent progressState AssessmentBenchmark assessmentsCommon assessmentsTeacher-made assessmentsPlan for gathering dataProcesses and procedures for gathering information about quality of workProcedures for gathering information about student progressEnd resultStudent learningTeacher ratingDirection for professional growthDetermination of employmentCompensationCareer ladder
15 Best Practices in Evaluation Basis for observation– Knowledge of the criteriaObservers must understand the CriteriaObservers must have a focus on constructing meaning through cognitive engagementObservers must be able to identify appropriate data (evidence) to paint an accurate picture of educators’ workPlan for gathering data – Fidelity to process and proceduresObserver must understand the process including it’s intent or purpose.Observer must follow process with fidelity, engaging the educator in discussion along the wayObserver must maintain consistency and fairness from educator to educatorEnd result –Quality of the productObserver must align evidence to appropriate componentObserver must level evidence accuratelyObserver must have sufficient evidence to support ratingObserver must have skill in engaging educator in conversation around level and direction for future
16 Research Says… Six Best Practices Annual Processes Clear, rigorous expectationsMultiple measuresMultiple ratingsRegular feedbackSignificance
17 Evidence Evidence is a factual reporting of events. It may include teacher and student actions and/or behaviors.It may also include artifacts prepared by the teacher, students, or others.It is not clouded with personal opinion or biases.It is selected using data-gathering by the observer and / or the teacher.
18 Types of Observation Evidence Verbatim scripting of teacher or student comments:“Bring your white boards, markers and erasers to the carpetand sit on your square.”Non-evaluative statements of observed teacher or student behavior:Teacher presented the content from the front of room.Numeric information about time, student participation, resource use, etc.:[9:14 – 9:29] Warm-up. 8 of 22 Ss finished at 9:20, sat stilluntil 9:29An observed aspect of the environment:Desks were arranged in groups of four with room to walkbetween each group.
19 Evidence or Opinion? Read each statement. Evidence or opinion? Discuss your answer with your elbow partner.If opinion, reword the statement so that it is an evidence statement.Be prepared to discuss some of the statements, or statements about which you have questions.
20 Evidence Review Actions, by teacher or students Statements or questions, by teacher or studentsObservable features of the classroom
21 Evidence Review Have I recorded only facts? Is my evidence relevant to the criteria being examined?Whenever possible, have I quantified words such as few, some, and most?Have I used quotation marks when quoting a teacher or student?Does my selection or documentation of evidence indicate any personal or professional preferences? Have I included any opinion (in the guise of fact)?
22 BIASDefinition: Attaching positive or negative meaning to elements in our environment based on personal or societal influences that shape our thinkingA biased judgment is based on outside influences of effectiveness.Example: “Mrs. T does so much for the school, she is an excellent teacher.”The actual classroom evidence may not support the rating of the teacher as “excellent”.
23 Bias in an Educational Setting Imagine that you are the parent of a school age child. You are walking down the hall of your child’s school while classes are in session. The doors to several rooms are open and you have the opportunity to look in on teachers.What would cause you to think favorably about what you saw and what would cause you to think negatively?
24 Other Threats to Observer Accuracy Assessor biasLeniencyCentral Tendency“Halo” or “Horns” Effect
25 Reflecting on Bias Reflect on teachers you have evaluated in the past… What biases may have influenced your judgment?Have personal biases impacted a higher or lower rating of a teacher?
26 The Evidence Cycle COLLECT DATA (Evidence) Interpret: Clarify SORT TOALIGNWITH YOURFRAMEWORKInterpret:ClarifyConclusionsNO!Impact on learning…Support needed…
27 Time to Practice 9th Grade Social Studies Evidence Collection Share with your partner:What is your initial reaction?What did you notice?How does this compare to lessons you typically see?
28 Time to Practice Evidence check Label your evidence with the appropriate teaching standard and element (from ).
30 Some Thoughts About Feedback Growth producing feedback is better than praise.Specific feedback is better than global feedback.Feedback is the bridge between performance and the desired goal.Reflection is not about what went well. It is about what you noticed about the lesson.Some feedback is hard to give. Let the evidence do the talking!
31 Types of Feedback Directive-From evaluator to teacher When behavior is immoral, illegal, dangerous, cluelessCollaborative-Back and forthBoth evaluator and teacher have ideas to contributeNon-directive-From teacher to evaluatorThe teacher deserves to take the lead
32 Table TalkBased on the evidence that you previously collected, craft three questions that you would consider using in a post-observation conference.Frame your questions to ensure that they are designed to promote a climate of professional inquiry.Share your questions with a partner. Consider the following:How might this question make the teacher feel??How might the teacher respond to the question?
33 A Culture of Professional Inquiry Professional learning never ends.It is every teacher’s responsibility to engage in professional development.Teaching is so complex that it is never done perfectly.Every educator can always become more skilled. Making a commitment to do so is part of the essential work of teaching.Charlotte DanielsonThe Handbook for Enhancing Professional Practice
34 A Culture of Professional Inquiry Should: Infuse a school’s practices related to professional development;Be reflected in the school’s practices surrounding mentoring and teacher evaluation; andRegard mentoring and evaluation as ongoing learning.Charlotte DanielsonThe Handbook for Enhancing Professional Practice
35 Teacher Evaluation“Teacher evaluation can be an opportunity for genuine professional learning. When organized around clearly established and accepted standards of practice, teacher evaluation offers an opportunity for educators to reflect seriously on their practice, and promote learning.”Charlotte DanielsonThe Handbook for Enhancing Professional Practice
36 Table TalkDiscuss the content of the previous 4 slides with your colleagues.What cultural and structural conditions must be in place to create and sustain a climate of professional inquiry?In what ways does the type of questions observers ask of teachers promote – or inhibit – such a climate?How does your existing culture foster a culture of inquiry?What changes, if any, need to be made in your existing culture to create a culture of professional inquiry?