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1 Standards: A Road Map for Reducing Travel Time on the Achievement Highway Presented by: Quality Quinn Quality Quinn, Inc.

2 Equity The Tell Tale Hart by Arthur Rackham  TRUE!-nervous-very, dreadfully nervous I had been and am; but why will you say that I am mad? The disease had sharpened my senses- not destroyed-not dulled them. Above all was the sense of hearing acute. I heard all things in the heaven and in the earth. I heard many things in hell. How, then, am I mad? Hearken! And observe how healthily-how calmly I can tell you the whole story.

3 Equity The Tell Tale Hart Contd.  It is impossible to say how first the idea entered my brain; but once conceived, it haunted me day and night. Object there was none. Passion there was none. I loved the old man. He had never wronged me. He had never given me insult. For this gold I had no desire. I think it was his eye! Yes, it was this! He had the eye of a vulture-a pale blue eye, with a film over it. Whenever it fell upon me, my blood ran cold; and so by degrees-very gradually-I made up my mind to take the life of the old man, and thus rid myself of the eye for ever.

4 For more information w.qualityquinn.com Click on Booking Info Find the date of your presentation Click on Download Presentation !

5 Experiment for the Adolescent Literacy: INSTRUCTIONAL  Direct, explicit instruction  Vocabulary and extended word study in Content Areas  Substantial increase in Reading Fluency in Content Areas  Text Comprehension strategies in Content Areas  Effective instructional principles embedded in content  Motivation and self-directed learning  Text-based collaborative learning  Strategic tutoring  Diverse texts  Intensive writing  A technology component  Ongoing formative assessment of students

6 Suggested Experiment for the Adolescent Literacy: INFRASTRUCTURAL  Extended time for learning  Professional development  Ongoing summative assessment  Teacher teams  Leadership  A comprehensive and coordinated literacy program

7 15 Elements of Effective Adolescent Literacy  Direct, explicit instruction  Effective instructional principles embedded in content  Motivation and self-directed learning  Text-based collaborative learning  Strategic tutoring  Diverse texts  Intensive writing  A technology component  Ongoing formative assessment of students *  Extended time for learning  Professional development *  Ongoing summative assessment *  Teacher teams  Leadership  A comprehensive and coordinated literacy program

8 You Can’t Tutor What Hasn’t Been Taught  You can’t tutor what hasn’t been taught

9 The goal of the teacher is to create an environment that allows every reader to move as quickly as possible to grade level, content area reading

10 The Challenge  37% of all 8th graders scored below Basic on the NAEP  After third grade, the achievement gap with minority, second language, and low- income learners widens substantially  The prospect of exit exams yields an increase in drop-outs

11 The Challenge After third grade, the achievement gap with minority, second language, and low-income learners widens substantially  Incomplete beginning reading instruction  Serious vocabulary deficit  Very limited knowledge of text structure  Misconceptions about fluency  Lack of meaningful early comprehension assessment

12 Three Flavors of Assessment  Summative Assessment = External Reporting  Scorekeeping  Broad data for identifying specific populations  Program evaluation and budget indicators  Formative Assessment =Internal Reporting  Intervention: Do something differently, immediately (STOP Spray and Pray!)  Progress monitoring over time for individual students  Data used to plan “next move” for instruction (lesson design --GLM)  Getting a Grade = Comfort the troubled, trouble the comfortable  Public relations  A,B,C,D,F: Coin of the realm

13 The Zone of Proximal Development  Moving readers from their level of success to the appropriate level of difficulty  Using Coached Reading to identify the independent reading supports—how does the reader solve her problem? How do you or the materials you employ help?  Fluency is not about how fast you read, but what is it that is slowing you down.

14 The Gradual Release Model Read Aloud and Think Alouds Shared Reading and Shared Thinking Guided or Coached Reading and Thinking Independent Reading and Thinking

15  New expectation for ALL learners  Interactive learning and discourse for meaning  What the brain likes-MULTISENSORY  Reading for MATH  Analyzing Data  Moving from being data rich to analysis poor  ELL, Spec. Ed. 5 Critical Elements for Rapid Growth

16  Lesson Design  Reading Content alignment: vertical and horizontal teaming—ELL, Spec.Ed.  Assessment driving differentiated instruction  Classroom Management  Instruction in terms of minutes  Collaboration  Whole class, small group, think-pair-share, indep.  Grade Level Meetings  Agendas, increased frequency, evidence driven  Student specific with proofs of instruction/learningThe Role of the Literacy Coach

17 Grade Level Meetings Student specific  Find and use ALL data ( bring to meeting)  Do analysis for strength and weakness  Prioritize needs  Set goals (what % of sub groups will grow )  Brainstorm specific strategies  Results indicators  Action Plan

18 The Bones of a Lesson Design What do they need to learn? Federal Mandates State Testing District Identified Curriculum objectives And the prerequisite learning required Who are THEY? (name names) ELL Students Special Ed. Students Economically Disadvantaged Students What Resources are Available? Vertical curriculum knowledge Grade level expertise Second lang. specialist Special Ed. specialist Reading specialist Time Materials and programs that help differentiate instruction Assessment (ACTIONABLE DATA) Your State’s Summative assessment Disaggregated down to item analysis All formative assessments Fluency checks and Oral retellings Listening comprehension And reading comp.

19 What do THEY need to learn? What do they need to learn? Federal Mandates State Testing District Identified Curriculum objectives and the prerequisite learning required

20 Who Are They? Who are THEY (name names) ? English Language Learners Special Education Students Economically Disadvantaged Students

21 What Resources are Available? What Resources are Available? Vertical curriculum knowledge Grade level expertise Second lang. specialist Special Ed. specialist Reading specialist Time Materials and programs that help differentiate instruction

22 Assessment Assessment (ACTIONABLE DATA) Your State’s summative assessment data disaggregated down to item analysis All formative assessments DIBELS Oral retellings Listening comprehension Progress monitoring

23 Cambridge Model  Planning and Preparation  Environment  Instruction  Assessment  Leadership

24 The three most important words for the struggling reader:  VOCABULARY  Words-words-words-words-words-words-words- words-words-words-words-words-words-words- words-words-words-words-words-words-you get it!!!!

25 Five Types of Vocabulary  Listening Vocabulary  Thinking Vocabulary  Speaking Vocabulary  Reading Vocabulary  Writing Vocabulary

26 Writing for Success  Question: “Are people motivated to achieve by personal satisfaction rather than by fame or money?”  My view of the idea that it is personal satisfaction rather than money or fame that motivates people to achieve is sometimes wrong because in sports some people do it for personal satisfaction because they love the game and some people do it for the money because it pays well.

27 Student response  Even though we live in a capitalist society, I still cannot help but believe, despite my own cynicism, that people are more motivated to achieve something for personal satisfaction rather than monetary gains.

28 Five Elements of Reading  Phonemic Awareness  Phonics  Vocabulary  Fluency  Text Comprehension

29 What Spanish and English have in Common  Spanish is 90% Latin  English is 67% Latin  Both languages are alphabetic  Both languages have the same vowels

30 How Spanish and English are Different  Spanish is a language of segmentation  English is a language blending  Spanish has three types of syllables  English has six types of syllables  English has words that must be learned by sight ( sight words are also called high frequency words)

31 What the Research Indicates  Identify the language demands of the content  Emphasize academic vocabulary  Activate and strengthen prior knowledge  Promote oral interaction and extended academic talk  Review academic vocabulary and content concepts

32

33 Registers of Language – R. Payne  Frozen: Language that is always the same  Formal : Standard sentence syntax of work and school.  Consultative : Formal register when used with conversation. Discourse patterns slightly less formal.  Casual : Language between friends: word vocabulary. Non-specific word- choice; non-verbal assists determine meaning. Sentence syntax often incomplete.  Intimate: Language between lovers or twins. The language of sexual harassment.

34 Vocabulary Instruction  Concept vocabulary  Big idea words: attrition, populism, hypothesis  Context vocabulary  Words that have multiple meanings: economy, mine, elements, book, state, set, case  Vocabulary structure  Words with recognizable Latin cognates: migratory, revolt, spectator  Jim Cummins-Word Harvesting

35 What Words to Teach Bringing Words to Life —ROBUST Vocabulary Instruction Isabel Beck,Nancy MacKowen First tier words Words that you wish students knew, hope they can get, but you don’t have time to teach. Second tier words High utility words that they need to know in your class, and everyone else’s. Third tier words Extremely specific words in your content area that require considered, deliberate and in depth instruction.

36 Three Muscles:  Early Language Experience  Phonemic awareness and concept development  Vocabulary, academic language and alphabetic principle  Decoding muscle  Three ways of getting meaning off the page  (1)phonics…primary decoding strategy  (2)semantics and vocabulary  (3) syntax and structure  Fluency muscle  Reads a lot of words fast w/ comprehension*  Class libraries of high-interest content related articles  Every day, every reader reading at a level of success of self-selected quality literature (fiction or non-fiction)

37 Text Structures

38 Language Arts

39  Whose woods these are I think I know: his house is in the village, though. He will not mind me stopping here to watch his woods fill up with snow. My little horse must think it queer to stop without a farmhouse near. He gives his harness bells a shake, to ask if there is some mistake. The only other sound’s the sweep of easy wind and downy flake. The woods are lovely dark and deep, but I have promises to keep…and miles to go before I sleep. And miles to go before I sleep.

40 Science

41 Science  The Hall-Heroult process is essentially the electrolytic decomposition of purified bauxite. In a cell made of iron, a solution of Al 2 O 3 in molten cryolite, Na 3 AlF 6, conducts the current.  Procedural words, ordinals, first, then, next, etc.

42 Social Studies 8

43 Social Studies/History  Although The Confederacy represented the Southern states, its army attacked Gettysburg from the North. The Confederate Generals, having spent a tough winter and spring in the Shenandoah Valley, were desperate for supplies, particularly shoes. Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, a farming and shoe manufacturing community would hopefully provide the much needed supplies.  Subordinating conjunctions: since, while, because, although, yet, if, as if, however, etc.

44 Math

45 Math  The architect and contractor were conferring over the blueprints of the new ten story parking garage. It needed to be ten floors and have space for compact cars. Each floor required twenty-two “I” beams, plus one additional beam for each additional floor after the first. Determine the number of “I” beams and show a possible structural configuration.

46 Math Research  Embed in real world:make it engaging, generating more questions  Create a language rich classroom  Justifying, generalizations, highly verbal, highly visual students  Draw pictures, create mental images, foster visualization  Build from charts, graphs & tables- also, the misinterpretation of data  Don’t leave out measurement

47 Let’s Demystify Reading

48 Three Muscles:  Early Language Experience  Phonemic awareness and concept development  Vocabulary, academic language and alphabetic principle  Decoding muscle  Three ways of getting meaning off the page  (1)phonics…primary decoding strategy  (2)semantics and vocabulary  (3) syntax and structure  Fluency muscle  Reads a lot of words fast w/ comprehension*  Class libraries of high-interest content related articles  Every day, every reader reading at a level of success of self-selected quality literature (fiction or non-fiction)

49 News Flash!!!!!  26 letters and 44 sounds  16 reliable letters, (letters that always sound the same) q,w,t,p,d,f,h,j,k,l,z,x,v,n,m,b,  4 that are switch hitters... s,g,c&r  3 that are pests...a,o,u  3 that will make you CRAZY!!!!…i,e,y  Double vowels: oa, oo, ee, ea, oi, ou, au  Blends: ch, sh, wh, st,str, pl, sl, fl, gl, cl, bl, kl,cr,scr,

50 Vocabulary and Phonics  stench ap-pal-ling  de-hu-man-izein-tro-spec-tion  in-e-qui-tyel-e-ments  cru-el-tyre-a-li-tyin-hu-man-i-ty  in-hu-mancol-lab-o-ra-tion  e-con-o-myhur-dle  shame re-con-struc-tion  em-path-ymine

51 Teaching Word Attack (phonics) in Science  Con-ser-va-tionbun-dle  Ac-cel-er-a-tionstate  Force base  Massmol-e-cule  Grav-i-ta-tion-al forcegas-e-ous  Ter-min-al vel-o-city  Grav-i-ta-tion-al at-trac-tion  Mo-men-tum

52 anthropologically An-thro-po-log-i-cal-ly

53 australopithecine Aus-tra-lo-pith-e-cine

54 Definition of Comprehension  Comprehension is defined as:  “intentional thinking during which meaning is constructed through interactions between the text and the reader” (Harris & Hodges,1995)

55 STRATEGIES  Clarifying  Comparing and contrasting  Connecting to prior experiences  Inferencing (including generalizing and drawing conclusions)  Predicting  Questioning the text  Recognizing the author’s purpose  Seeing causal relationships  Summarizing  visualizing

56 …an excerpt  Draped for the formal unveiling May 31 – with only an insouciant topknot and Horton The Elephant’s trunk peeking out – the sculptures frolic on the wide green linking the city library and its four museums that gave wing to the author’s imagination.--

57 Process for Leadership  Challenge the process  search for opportunities  change status quo  Inspiring a shared vision  imagine the ideal situation  Enabling others to act  foster cooperation  modeling the way  Encouraging the heart to begin the journey

58 -el words  Towel  Trowel  Compel  Dispel  Dowel  Repel  Bushel  Shovel  Pummel  Level revel travel dishevel

59 Testwiseness: An Important Piece of a Comprehensive Intervention Strategy 1.On-going, sustained test readiness and rehearsal, i.e. testwiseness 2.Phonics instruction for those who received “hit-or-miss” decoding during whole language approach; analyze spelling errors 3.Build fluency with an “every day, every child reads at a level of success” approach; assess for oral expression, pace and accuracy 4.Use regular non-fiction writing events to teach science & soc. studies syntax; CRCT high-level comprehension objectives

60 Teaching Comprehension Directly  Monitor the use of the strategy  Offer less coaching as less is called for  Ask what strategy they are using & why, therefore bringing the strategy to the student’s awareness  Give students continued opportunity to observe more modeling  Provide multiple and ongoing opportunities for students to interact w/others using a variety of text

61 How do I teach those strategies?  Decide which strategy you want to model and which text to use  Tell your students which strategy you are going to practice while you read  Read the passage to the students modeling the strategy you are using..think aloud  During real reading, give your students multiple chances to practice  Continue modeling as the genre or text structure changes  Give students a chance to practice without your coaching or support

62 Recent Headlines and Quotes  More than half of California 9th Graders Flunk Exit Exam, Education Week  “It will take at least ten years to reach proficiency for all learners”NCLB  “adequate yearly progress” President Bush  Still Leaving Children Behind Krista Kafta, Heritage Foundation  Reading is the New Requisite for Math Education Week

63 Struggling Older Reader  Incomplete beginning reading instruction  Lacks metacognitive strategies  Limited prior knowledge  Limited word study skills and spelling  No text available at level of success  No adults modeling reading  No history of reading success

64 Five Keys to No Child Left Behind  Vertical team study of 4-9 reading curriculum with evidence of student work  Phonemic Awareness &Phonics training for 4th through 9th grade teachers  Vocabulary instruction training geared more toward “word harvest”  Ready availability of compelling leveled text with conditional assessment  Classroom management strategies that provide intensity and focus for below level readers

65 Process for Leadership  Challenge the process  search for opportunities  change status quo  Inspiring a shared vision  imagine the ideal situation  Enabling others to act  foster cooperation  modeling the way  Encouraging the heart to begin the journey

66 The Old Syllable- the part of a word controlled by a vowel- In English, there are 6 types  Syllable that is a single letter, single vowel, as in a-bout, i-dent-i-fy, e-lec-tric, a-vail-a-ble  Syllable ending in vowel, as in cru-el-ty,  Syllable ending in a consonant, as in al-co-hol, con- su-mer, ath-lete Syllable ending in -tion-sion, as in in-tro-duc-tion  Syllable ending in -le, as in tin-gle, pic-kle, bi-cy-cle  Syllable ending with a vowel, consonant, silent “e”, as in shame, dime, kite, mon-o-tone, val-en-tine  O-le  Que-so  Cam-e-ro-nes

67 Grammar IS Syntax  The power the lowly preposition  The power of the subordinating conjunction

68 Persuasive  State opinion  Support with clear evidence or examples  Personalize  Appeal to the emotions  Graphic imagery  Structured argument  All to action

69 Phoneme Isolation  Children recognize individual sounds in a word.  Teacher:  What is the first sound in van?  Children:  The first sound in van is /v/.

70 Phoneme Identity  Children recognize the same sounds in different words.  Teacher:  What sound is the same in fix, fall, and fun?  Children:  The first sound, /f/, is the same.

71 Phoneme Categorization  Children recognize the word in a set of three or four words that has the “odd” sound.  Teacher:  Which word doesn’t belong? Bus, bun, rug.  Children:  Rug does not belong. It doesn’t begin with /b/.

72 Phoneme Blending  Children listen to a sequence of separately spoken phonemes, and then combine the phonemes to form a word.  Teacher:  What word is /b/ /i/ /g/?  Children:  /b/ /i/ /g/ is big.  Teacher:  Now let’s write the sounds in big: /b/ /i/ /g/. (Teacher writes big.) Now we’re going to read the word big.

73 Phoneme Segmentation  Children break a word into its separate sounds, saying each sound as they tap out or count it.  Teacher:  How many sounds are in grab?  Children:  /g/ /r/ /a/ /b/. Four sounds.  Teacher:  Now let’s write the sounds in grab: /g/ /r/ /a/ /b/. (Teacher writes grab.) Now we’re going to read the word grab.

74 Phoneme Deletion  Children recognize the word that remains when a phoneme is removed from another word.  Teacher:  What is smile without the /s/?  Children:  Smile without the /s/ is mile.

75 Phoneme Addition  Children make a new word by adding a phoneme to an existing word.  Teacher:  What word do you have if you add /s/ to the beginning of park?  Children:  Spark.

76 Phoneme Substitution  Children substitute one phoneme for another to make a new word.  Teacher:  The word is bug. Change /g/ to /n/. What’s the new word?  Children:  Bun.

77 What should be done? 1.Dedicated developmental reading testing preparedness program 5th through 8th 2.Continued professional development for ALL teachers in reading intervention Initiate on-going professional development in science, social studies, and math reading & writing 4.Integrate a “testwiseness” curriculum for state testing programs with strong emphasis on the content areas

78 Reader Response  Review the story  Select a sentence or phrase that lingers  Write down two reasons for selecting that  Share your sentence and reasons w/others  Come to consensus  Be prepared to share to group

79 What is being done?  Mandatory summer school  Same thing, but LOUDER  Expensive intervention programs with uneven results  Teacher training institutions changing reading requirements

80 Five Steps to Two Years’ Growth for One Year of Instruction  Vertical team study of k-8 reading curriculum with evidence of student work  Phonics training for 3 rd through 8 th grade teachers  Vocabulary instruction training geared more toward “word harvest”  Ready availability of compelling leveled text with conditional assessment  Classroom management strategies that provide intensity and focus for below level readers

81 The Goal: Show Improvement  Growth triggers funding  Data is the gatekeeper  No improvement: no money  Show enough growth to secure funding  What will be considered growth?

82 What you can do in the classroom?  Discipline  Use the adult voice first, then the parent voice.  To avoid arguments with parents and students, use the adult voice.  Use discipline interventions as an opportunity for instruction.  Use the parent voice to stop behaviors. Use the parent voice to change behaviors.

83 Useful References  Adams, M.J. (2000). Beginning to Read: thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.  Alexander, K. & Entwisle, D. (1996). Schools and children at risk. In A. Booth & J. Dunn (Eds.). Family-school links: How do they affect educational outcomes? Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.  Baker, L. (1994). Contexts of emergent literacy: Everyday home experiences of urban pre-kindergarten children. College Park, MD: National Reading Research Center.  Baker, L., D. Scher, and K. Mackler. (1997). Home and family influences on motivations for reading. Educational Psychologist 32(2): 69:82.  Burns, M.S., Griffin, P., & Snow, C.E. (1999). Starting out right: A guide to promoting children’s reading success. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.  Baker, L., Allen. J., Schockley, B, Pelligrini, A.D., Galda, L. & Stahl, S. (1996). Connecting school and home: Constructing partnerships to foster reading development in L. Baker, P. Afflerbach & D. Reinking (Eds.), Developing engaged readers in home and school communities, Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp

84  Burns, M.S., Griffin, P., & Snow, C.E. (1999). Starting out right: A Guide to promoting children’s reading success. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.  Bus. A.G., M.H. van Ijzendoorn, and A.D. Pellegrini. (1995). Joint book reading makes for success in learning to read: A meta-analysis on intergenerational transmission of literacy. Review of Educational Research: 65(1):  Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement. (2001). Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read. Jessup, MD: Partnership for Reading. Available:  Edwards, P.A. (1995). Empowering low income mothers and fathers to share books with young children. The reading teacher 48:  Epstein, J.L., Coates, L., Salinas, K.C., Sanders, M.G., & Simmons, B.S. (1997). School, family and community partnerships: Your handbook for action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.  Gallimore, R., & Goldenberg, C. (1993). Activity settings of early literacy: Home and school factors in children’s emergent literacy. In E. Forman, N. Minick, & A. Stone (Eds.), Contexts for learning: Sociocultural dynamics in children’s development (pp ). New York: Oxford University Press.

85  Gentile, L. M., & McMillan, M.M. (1992). Literacy for students at- risk; Developing critical dialogues. Journal of Reading, 35,  Hart, Betty & Risley, Todd R. (1995). Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children. Paul H Brookes Pub Co.  Lyon, G.R. (1998). Overview of reading and literacy initiatives. Testimony Provided to the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of child Health and Human Development.  Moats, L. (1999, June). Teaching Reading is Rocket Science. Wahington, DC: American Federation of Teachers. Available online: National Center for Education Statistics (1998). Characteristics of children’s early care and Education programs: Data from, the 1995 National Household Education Surveys (NCES No ).  National Reading Panel. (1999). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based Assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups. Washington DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Available:  O’Donnell, M.P., & Wood, M. (1992). Becoming a reader: A developmental instruction. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

86  Oldfather, P. & Wigfield, A. (1996). Children’s motivations for literacy learning in Developing. In L. Baker, C. Afflorbach & D. Reinking (Eds.). Developing engaged readers in home and school communities. (pp , Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.  Riley, J. (1996). The teaching of reading, London: Paul Chapman.  Robbins, C., and L.C. Ehri. (1994). Reading storybooks to kindergarteners helps them learn new vocabulary words. Journal of Educational Psychology 86(1):  Snow, Catherine E., M. Susan Burns, and Peg Griffin. (1998). Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Washington D.C., National Academy Press.  Sonnenschein, S., Brody, G., & Munsterman, K. (1996). The influence of family beliefs and practices on children’s early reading development, In L. Baker, P. Afflerback & D. Reinking (Eds.). Developing engaged readers in home and school communities. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. PP  U.S. Department of Education. (1999). Start early, finish strong: How to help every child become a reader (America Reads Challenge), Washington, D.C.: author. Available online:

87 Take Me Out to the Ballgame  Take out to the ballgame  Take me out to the crowd  Buy me some peanuts and crackerjacks  I don’t care if I ever get back  Let me root, root,root for the home team  If they don’t win it’s a shame  For it’s one, two, three strikes you’re out  At the old ball game

88 What is fluency  Attaching sounds quickly to letters  Blending and segmenting quickly  Knowing most of the words you are reading  Paying attention

89 Your students the practice  Give your students the prac-tice,  To read with ease and con-fi-dence  And wa----tch ac-c-u-ra-cy and  Un-der-sta-a-a-n-ding. Soar by:  Mo-del flu-et read-ing  Do re-pea-ted read-ing  Promote phrased read-ing  En-list tu-tors (to help)  And try readers’ theater in class

90 The Challenge After third grade, the achievement gap with minority, second language, and low-income learners widens substantially  Incomplete beginning reading instruction  Serious vocabulary deficit  Very limited knowledge of text structure  Misconceptions about fluency  Lack of meaningful early comprehension assessment


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