Presentation on theme: "Conventional Radiography"— Presentation transcript:
1Conventional Radiography Mobile x-rayConventional RadiographyByDr. Amr A. Abd-Elghany
2IntroductionX-ray is an imaging technique that has been used since 1895 to show up abnormalities in bones and certain body tissue, such as breast tissue.X-rays are a type of high-energy radiation that is like light waves but higher in energy. An X-ray machine can produce short bursts of X-rays that pass easily through fluids and soft tissues of the body but are blocked by dense tissue such as bone.Contrast X-rays use a substance (called a contrast medium) that makes hollow or fluid-filled structures visible. This means that structures such as the digestive tract, blood vessels or urinary system that do not usually show up on X-ray, can be seen. The substance is injected or swallowed and X-rays cannot pass through it, so the area will appear white on the X-ray.
3What are x-rays?No massNo chargeEnergyWhat is yourobservation?
4Basic x-ray physics X-rays: a form of electromagnetic energy Travel at the speed of lightElectromagnetic spectrumGamma Rays X-raysVisible light Infrared lightMicrowaves RadarRadio waves
5Three things can happen X-rays can:Pass all the way through the bodyBe deflected or scatteredBe absorbedWhere on this imagehave x-rays passedthrough the bodyto the greatest degree?
6X-rays Passing Through Tissue Depends on the energy of the x-ray and the atomic number of the tissueHigher energy x-ray - more likely to pass throughHigher atomic number - more likely to absorb the x-rayDiagnosis?
7How do x-rays passing through the body create an image? X-rays that pass through the body to the film render the film dark (black)X-rays that are totally blocked do not reach the film and render the film light (white)Air = low atomic # = x-rays get through = image is darkMetal = high atomic # = x-rays blocked = image is light (white)
85 Basic Radiographic Densities 1.AirFatSoft tissue/fluidMineralMetal126.96.36.199.Name these radiographic densities.
9History: “I think my dog swallowed a rock” Diagnosis: “Yes, he did.”
10What is used for? Check bone fractures and osteoporosis. Check teeth and joints.Examine heart and lungs (chest x-ray).Examine breast tumors (mammogram).
12Steps for optimal chest x-ray Accurate patient positioningTube film distanceFull inspirationAdequate penetration (thin patient takes low dose while fat one takes higher dose for good image resolution)
13Exposure (technique) factors for film screen imaging Kilovolt (kV)-controls the energy (penetrating power) of the x-ray beam.Milliamperage (mA)-controls the quantity or number of x-rays produced.Exposure time (ms)-controls the duration of the exposure, usually expressed in milliseconds.
14General TermsRadiograph: is a film or other base material containing a processed image of an anatomic part of the patient as produced by action of x-rays on an IR.Radiography: the production of radiographs or other forms of radiographic images.Radiograph vs. x-ray film: x-ray film refers the physical piece of material on which a radiographic image is exposed. The term radiograph includes the film and the image.Radiographic images: are representation of patient anatomic structures. They can be obtained as a hard copy or digitally.
15Radiographic examination or procedure Positioning of the body part and central ray CR.Selection of the radiation protection measures.Selection of the exposure factors on the control panel.Patient instructions relating to respiration .Processing of the IR.
16Positioning Postro-anterior (Chest PA): -The radiation enters the body from the posterior.-Standard position preferred in diagnosis.-The heart is near to the film so there is no magnification of the heart.Lung divided into four regions:ApexUpper lung zoneMiddle lung zoneLower lung zone
18Antero posterior chest X-ray In case of emergency patients (Supine AP).
19PA versus APThe AP shows magnification of the heart (transverse cardiac diameter not correct) and mediastinum.AP views are less useful and should be reserved for very ill patients who cannot stand erect.
20Erect versus supine chest x-ray False impression due to magnified heart and difficulty in breathing (wrong diaphragm position).
21Left lateralTo detect lesions (is any abnormality in the tissue of an organism) in the left lung.The left side is near from the film.
22Adequate penetration under exposure Over exposure We can not see detailsOver exposureOver dose
23Full inspiration level The diaphragm is at the 10th rib in the full inspiration level.
24Lateral chest x-rayLower dorsal vertebrae are darker than upper ones due to the presence of shoulder bones (normal).If the upper dorsal vertebrae were dark and lower ones were brighter then we have lesions may be pneumonia.Right lower lobe