Presentation on theme: "MALE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH PRODUCTION, STORAGE, MATURATION, TRANSPORTATION Wellness 9."— Presentation transcript:
MALE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH PRODUCTION, STORAGE, MATURATION, TRANSPORTATION Wellness 9
Puberty in Males During puberty, the male’s pituitary gland increases its production of a hormone called LH. LH travels through the bloodstream to the testes and causes them to secrete testosterone. (Luteinizing Hormone) Testosterone – a hormone that produces male secondary sex characteristics. Secondary sex characteristics are physical and emotional changes that occur during puberty.
How to Manage Emotions During puberty, a male may notice that he has sudden emotional changes and sexual feelings. Testosterone is responsible for causing these changes. A male may: Become angry or say things he does not mean. Feel insecure or edgy for no reason. Be puzzled when he has such intense feelings. HE SHOULD KNOW THAT CHANGES IN EMOTIONS ARE NORMAL DURING PUBERTY.
How to Manage Emotions Increase in testosterone also produces sexual feelings. Males must set limits, stick to these limits, and practice abstinence.
How to Accept Physical Changes Changes become noticeable between the ages of 12 and 15. The maturing process that happens in puberty is affected by heredity, diet, health habits, and health status. Ex. – A male who lifts weights may develop a more muscular body than a male who does not.
How to Accept Physical Changes A male is more likely to have a positive body image when he is knowledgeable about male anatomy and physiology. Males mature at very different rates. A male should ask his parents, guardian, or physician questions he has about his growth and development. He should avoid comparing his body to those of other males.
Male Secondary Sex Characteristics Increase in height. Longer and heavier bones. Broader shoulders. Thicker and tougher skin. Deepened voice. Growth of facial hair, pubic hair, and body hair. Enlargement of penis, scrotum, and testes. Formation of sperm.
Male Reproductive System The male reproductive system consists of organs in the male body that are involved in producing offspring. Functions: Produces male hormones (testosterone and others) Produces male reproductive cells (sperm) Stores sperm Releases sperm for fertilization of the ovum.
Male Reproductive System Most of the male reproductive system is located outside of the man’s body. The external structures of the male reproductive system are the penis, the scrotum, the epididymis and the testicles. The internal organs of the male reproductive system, also called accessory organs, include the following: Vas deferens Ejaculatory ducts Urethra Seminal vesicles Prostate gland Cowper’s (Bulbourethral) glands
Male Reproductive System
Penis The penis is the male organ for sexual intercourse. It has three parts: the root, which attaches to the wall of the abdomen; the body, or shaft; and the glans, which is the cone-shaped end of the penis. The glans, which also is called the head of the penis, is covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. (This skin is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision.) The opening of the urethra, the tube that transports semen and urine, is at the tip of the glans penis. Contains a number of sensitive nerve endings.
Erection An erection is the process that occurs when the penis swells with blood and elongates. An erection may be accompanied by ejaculation. Ejaculation is the passage of semen from the penis and is a result of a series of muscular contractions. After ejaculation, the penis returns to a non-erect state.
Semen Semen is the fluid that contains sperm and fluids from the seminal vesicles, prostrate gland, and Cowper’s glands. Sperm are male reproductive cells. Male sperm = Y, male sperm has a smaller head and swims faster(dies quicker) than a female sperm. Female sperm = X, female sperm has a bigger head and swims slower (lasts longer) than a male sperm. Semen, which contains sperm, is expelled (ejaculated) through the end of the penis when the man reaches sexual climax (orgasm). When the penis is erect, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.
Scrotum Scrotum —the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind the penis. It contains the testicles (also called testes), as well as many nerves and blood vessels. Has a protective function and acts as a climate control system for the testes. For normal sperm development, the testes must be at a temperature slightly cooler than the body temperature. Special muscles in the wall of the scrotum allow it to contract and relax, moving the testicles closer to the body for warmth and protection or farther away from the body to cool the temperature.
Testicles - Testes Testicles (testes) —oval organs about the size of large olives that lie in the scrotum, secured at either end by a structure called the spermatic cord. Most men have two testes. The testes are responsible for making testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, and for generating sperm. Within the testes are coiled masses of tubes called seminiferous tubules. These tubules are responsible for producing the sperm cells through a process called spermatogenesis.
Epididymis Epididymis —a long, coiled tube that rests on the backside of each testicle. It functions in the transport and storage of the sperm cells that are produced in the testes. It also is the job of the epididymis to bring the sperm to maturity, since the sperm that emerge from the testes are immature and incapable of fertilization. During sexual arousal, contractions force the sperm into the vas deferens.
Vas deferens Vas deferens — The vas deferens is a long, muscular tube that travels from the epididymis into the pelvic cavity, to just behind the bladder. The vas deferens transports mature sperm to the urethra in preparation for ejaculation.
Ejaculatory ducts Ejaculatory ducts — These are formed by the fusion of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. The ejaculatory ducts empty into the urethra.
Urethra Urethra — The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body. In males, it has the additional function of expelling (ejaculating) semen when the man reaches orgasm. When the penis is erect during sex, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.
Seminal vesicles Seminal vesicles — The seminal vesicles are sac- like pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder. The seminal vesicles produce a sugar-rich fluid (fructose) that provides sperm with a source of energy and helps with the sperms’ mobility (ability to move). The fluid of the seminal vesicles makes up most of the volume of a man’s ejaculatory fluid, or ejaculate.
Prostate gland Prostate gland — The prostate gland is a walnut- sized structure that is located below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum. The prostate gland contributes additional fluid to the ejaculate. Prostate fluids also help to nourish the sperm. The urethra, which carries the ejaculate to be expelled during orgasm, runs through the center of the prostate gland.
Cowper’s glands Cowpers glands — The Cowper’s glands, or bulbourethral glands, are pea-sized structures located on the sides of the urethra just below the prostate gland. These glands produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. This fluid serves to lubricate the urethra and to neutralize any acidity that may be present due to residual drops of urine in the urethra.
How does the male reproductive system function? The entire male reproductive system is dependent on hormones, which are chemicals that stimulate or regulate the activity of cells or organs. The primary hormones involved in the functioning of the male reproductive system are follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone. FSH and LH are produced by the pituitary gland located at the base of the brain. FSH is necessary for sperm production (spermatogenesis), and LH stimulates the production of testosterone, which is necessary to continue the process of spermatogenesis.
Fertilization Occurs when the sperm reaches the egg and penetrates it. Between 300 and 500 million sperm can be released in a single ejaculation. Millions of sperm will die through the journey of the vagina, uterus, and fallopian tubes. Each egg and sperm have half the DNA blueprint (23 chromosomes each) that pair up to create the embryo.
Problems of the Male Reproductive System Inguinal hernia – The protrusion of the intestines into the groin or scrotum. This occurs when the abdominal wall becomes strained and the muscles weaken so that the intestines put pressure on other areas normally protect. Sterility – Inability to produce enough healthy sperm to successfully fertilize an ovum. Can be caused by many things, including radiation, x-rays, certain chemicals, and pesticides. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD’s) – Spread during sexual contact, risk of STD’s increased with number of partners and unprotected sexual contact. Cancer – Uncontrolled cell growth that destroys healthy cells, cancer can affect the testes and the prostate. Testicular cancer is a common cancer in males between 15 and 35, while prostate cancer usually affects men over the age of 55.
Steps Men can Take for Preventive Health Care: Practice good daily hygiene and bathing of the external genitals. Conduct regular testicular self-examinations, which can catch any unusual swelling or lumps early and greatly increase chances for successful treatment. See Handout! Undergo regular health screenings. Wear protective gear when playing contact sports. Practice sexual abstinence to minimize risk.
Objective Questions What are the primary organs of the male reproductive system? What role does each of these organs have in the production and movement of sperm in the system? Explain the steps males can take to protect their reproductive health.