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1 Laboratory of Plant Systematics, K.U.Leuven, Belgium; 2 Institute of Systematic Botany, University of Zurich, Zollikerstrasse 107, 8008 Zürich, Switzerland;

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Presentation on theme: "1 Laboratory of Plant Systematics, K.U.Leuven, Belgium; 2 Institute of Systematic Botany, University of Zurich, Zollikerstrasse 107, 8008 Zürich, Switzerland;"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Laboratory of Plant Systematics, K.U.Leuven, Belgium; 2 Institute of Systematic Botany, University of Zurich, Zollikerstrasse 107, 8008 Zürich, Switzerland; 3 Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden branch, The Netherlands ; 4 Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3DS, United Kingdom A search for phylogenetically informative wood characters in the subfamily Rauvolfioideae (Apocynaceae) Frederic Lens 1, Mary E. Endress 2, Pieter Baas 3, Steven Jansen 4 and Erik Smets 1,3

2 Ca spp., 84 genera, 10 tribes Small to medium-sized trees, tropical lowland forests Lianas in 24 genera, most diverse in Willughbeieae Uniform flower morphology –Traditional classifications based on seed and fruit characters INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION Plumeria rubra Catharanthus roseusVinca minor

3 INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION Carissa macrocarpa Allamanda schottii Stemmadenia littoralis Cascabela thevetia

4 Simões et al. 2007: 5 chloroplast genes + morphology climbing taxa Rauvolfioideae paraphyletic APSA clade: -Apocynoideae -Periplocoideae -Secamonoideae -Asclepiadoideae

5 (1) Detailed wood anatomical descriptions –LM and SEM observations –91 species, 50 genera, all 10 tribes –CTFw, Lw, MADw, SJRw, Tw, WAGw (2) Find meaningful wood features characterizing Rauvolfioideae tribes (3) Compare anatomy of climbers vs. nonclimbers (4) Unravel wood evolution within Apocynaceae INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION

6 Vessel grouping INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION

7 Vessel perforations, vessel pitting

8 Imperforate tracheary elements INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION

9 Axial parenchyma distribution INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION

10 Rays

11 Calcium oxalate crystals INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION

12 Laticifers and intraxylary phloem INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION

13 Diagnostic wood features within Tabernaemontaneae s.s. … INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION

14 … lead to recognition of the former tribe Ambelanieae INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION

15 Climbing vs. nonclimbing genera in Willughbeieae INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION

16 Climbing vs. nonclimbing genera in Willughbeieae INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION

17 Aspidospermeae Alstonieae Kopsia-Vinceae Vinceae Noncli-Willughbeieae Tabernaemontaneae s.s. Diplorhynchus Melodineae Alyxieae Hunterieae Plumerieae Carisseae Wright., Nerieae, Malouet. Periplocoideae Remaining Apocynoideae Secamonoideae Cli-Willughbeieae Ambelanieae (Tabern s.l.) INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION Asclepiadoideae Vessel element length: — > 700 µm — µm — < 400 µm climbing taxa

18 Vessel grouping: — solitary vessels — radial multiples — clusters common Aspidospermeae Alstonieae Kopsia-Vinceae Vinceae Noncli-Willughbeieae Tabernaemontaneae s.s. Diplorhynchus Melodineae Alyxieae Hunterieae Plumerieae Carisseae Wright., Nerieae, Malouet. Periplocoideae Remaining Apocynoideae Secamonoideae Cli-Willughbeieae Ambelanieae (Tabern s.l.) INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION Asclepiadoideae climbing taxa

19 Axial parenchyma: — excl apotracheal — apo- & paratracheal — excl paratracheal — absent Aspidospermeae Alstonieae Kopsia-Vinceae Vinceae Noncli-Willughbeieae Tabernaemontaneae s.s. Diplorhynchus Melodineae Alyxieae Hunterieae Plumerieae Carisseae Wright., Nerieae, Malouet. Periplocoideae Remaining Apocynoideae Secamonoideae Cli-Willughbeieae Ambelanieae (Tabern s.l.) INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION Asclepiadoideae climbing taxa

20 No cells per axial parenchyma strand: — 8-10 — 4-8 — < 4 Aspidospermeae Alstonieae Kopsia-Vinceae Vinceae Noncli-Willughbeieae Tabernaemontaneae s.s. Diplorhynchus Melodineae Alyxieae Hunterieae Plumerieae Carisseae Wright., Nerieae, Malouet. Periplocoideae Remaining Apocynoideae Secamonoideae Cli-Willughbeieae Ambelanieae (Tabern s.l.) INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION Asclepiadoideae climbing taxa

21 Rauvolfioideae wood anatomically diverse Typical wood characters for most tribes –Vessel grouping, vessel element length –Number of cells per axial parenchyma strand –Fibre type Climbing vs. nonclimbing anatomy: –Paratracheal vs. apotracheal parenchyma –Tracheid presence vs. absence Some wood characters are diagnostic at the family level –E.g. Baileyan trend for vessel element length INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION

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