2Proliferation of Interest Groups Four reasons why interest groups are so common in the United States.The more divisions there are in a society, the greater the variety of interests that will exist.Our system of government multiplies the number of points at which interest groups can gain access to the government.Public laws exist that permit certain nonprofit groups to own property without paying taxes on it.Political parties are weaker, so interest groups can operate directly on the government.
3Types of nonprofit organizations Section 501 (c) (3) organizationsMay legally address political matters, but may not lobby or campaign.Donations to these are tax deductible.NOW FoundationSection 501 (c) (4) organizationsPermitted to lobby and campaignDonations to these are not tax deductibleNOW (half million members with 550 chapters)
4History of Interest Groups 1770s- Groups for independence1830s-1840s- religious associations and rise of antislavery movement1860s- Trade unions, Grange1880s-1890s- Business associationsEarly 20th Century- (Chamber of Commerce, AMA, NAACP, Urban League, American Jewish Committee)
5History of Interest Groups Roughly 70% of interest groups established their Washington offices after 1960, half after 1970.Wave of interest groups in the 1960s led to emergence of environmental, consumer, and political reform organizations
6Reasons for rise of interest groups Broad economic developments create new interests and redefine old onesGovernment policy creates interest groupsEnthusiastic young organizational entrepreneurs arise at certain times to exercise leadership on certain issuesWhen the government undertakes more activities, more organized groups will become interested in those activities.
7Types of Interest Groups Institutional InterestsIndividuals or organizations that represent other organizationsWhen groups that make up the organization aren’t diverse, the interest group can carry out clear policies that reflect the interests of its clients.Chamber of Commerce exampleLarge and diverse membership, so it can only speak out clearly on issues where most businesses take the same position.
8Types of Interest Groups Membership InterestsGroups like the NRA, NAACP, Sierra Club, AARPMost people who are sympathetic to these groups do not join.They will not join unless they get something out of joining.
9Reasons to join interest groups Incentives- Something of value one cannot get without joining an organizationSolidary incentives- social rewards that lead people to join political organizationsMaterial incentives- Money or services that can be valued in monetary terms that lead people to join political organizations.Purposive incentives- A benefit that comes from serving the cause or principle of an organization
10Ideological interest group vs. public-interest lobby Ideological interest groupsAmerican Conservative Union (ACU)Americans for Democratic Action (ADA)Gain members by appealing to ideological principles.Public-interest lobbiesA political organization whose goals will principally benefit nonmembers.American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)Nader’s groupsTend to have largest support when issues are hot. These organizations have a powerful interest to stay in the public eye, otherwise they lose membership and support.
11Interest Groups and Social Movements Civil Rights in the 1960sEnvironmental Movement in the 1970sFeminist Movement in many different time periods (1830s, 1890s, 1920s, 1960s)Modern day social movements tend to be more liberal, but in the past this was not always the case.
12Environmental Movement Sierra Club begins in the 1890s with the conservation movementWilderness Society and National Wildlife Federation in the 1930s- ConservationEnvironmental Defense Fund and Environmental Action in the 1960s and 1970s.
13Feminist Movement Three kinds of feminist organizations Solidary (League of Women Voters)Purposive (NOW and NARAL)Caucus- These take on specific issues that have material benefit to women.Women’s Equity Action League (WEAL)National Women’s Political CaucusNational Federation of Republican Women
14Union MovementAs the social movement behind labor reform has died out, the organizations that fought for the reforms still remain.Labor Union membership has been falling for sometime (2.2 million decline from )Only 10% of workers today covered by unionsGovernment workers and teachers still have large numbers in unions, and teachers are still the most significant unions in terms of lobbying.
15Funds for Interest Groups Foundation grants are a large source of funding, especially for liberal public-interest lobbying groups.Federal Grants and ContractsExpansions and cutbacks can help and hurt interest groupsMoney is not given to support lobbying, but to support projects groups undertake.
16Federal Grants and Contracts When money is won by a group, it allows them to provide services or create projects that will help support the organization as a whole.This puts organizations in a position to press Congress for policies the group favors, including policies that will give them more grants and contracts.This is why recipients of federal grants and contracts rarely change. (Self-perpetuating cycle)
17Federal GrantsThe groups that receive most of federal grants and contracts rarely have to undergo performance audits to see how effectively they are using money.BUSINESSES still receive far more money through federal contracts than nonprofit groups, and large corporations still get the most.Lockheed Martin- biggest federal contractor
18Direct Mail Unique to the modern interest group To bring in more money than the groups spends on the mailing, usually at least 2 percent of the names on the list must send in money.Tactics used to get money through mailingsTeasersEmotional ArousalCelebrity EndorsementsPersonalization of the Letter
19The Problem of Bias with Interest Groups Upper-class BiasWell-off people are more likely than the poor to join and be active in interest groupsProfessional and Business interest groups are more numerous and usually take in more money than other groups.This idea only takes into account inputs.Business-oriented interest groups are often divided among themselves.
20What is the bias in American politics and interest groups? Most conflicts over policy are conflicts within the upper middle class, or among the political elitesInterest groups activity represents the divide among the upper middle class more than anything else.Political resources are extremely important, but they are only clues.
21Activities of Interest Groups InformationSingle most important tactic is supplying credible informationPresenting material in an organized, persuasive, and factual manner.Having the confidence of legislators is essential for a lobbyists successInformation is most successful on narrow or technical issues.Political Cues- signals that tell a legislator what values are at stake in a vote, and how the issue fits into his/her political party agenda.Ratings systems done by interest groups help create public support for legislators. Can be helpful to voters, but are many times biased.
22Public SupportWhile an insider strategy is still valuable, the outsider strategy is becoming increasingly used by groups.Grassroots lobbyingLobbyists target undecided or wavering legislators and try to persuade them public opinion on an issue is in one direction.Legislators will sometimes go against public opinion unless it is an issue that could mean losing the next election.“Dirty Dozen”In American politics, no interest group is a lobby that cannot be beaten. The media may portray a group as invincible, but this is rarely, if ever, the case.
23Money and PACsMoney is actually one of the least effective ways for an interest group to influence politiciansTwo effects of campaign finance law (1973)Restricted amounts interest groups can give to candidatesMade it legal for corporations and unions to create PACs
24Money and PACsBoth parties have become dependent on PAC money, yet the typical PAC contribution is being spread out over many candidates, and the amount of money any one PAC can give is smallBusiness PACs split money between Democrats and RepublicansInfluence of money shows up in other ways than votesAccess to legislators
25The Revolving DoorPeople leaving jobs in the federal government to go work as lobbyists or consultants for private firms and industries.No clear pattern of abuse in this system, but from time to time it does happen.
26Interest Groups and Trouble Both sides of the political aisle have used disruption, display, even violence to get views acrossSuffrage, civil rights, some antiwar movements (civil disobedience) are proper ways of using disruption.Creates a no-win situation for politiciansIf you ignore the disruption, you are arrogant or insensitive.If you give in to demonstrators, it encourages more demonstrations.Call in police and you risk violence and injuries (Bad Publicity)
27Regulation of Interest Groups Interest Group Activity is protected by the First Amendment1946 Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act did very little in real effect.In 1995, Congress passed a bill to tighten regulationsBroadened the definition of a lobbyistLobbyists are required to report names of clients, income and expenditures, and their issues twice a yearGrassroots organizations are exempted.No organization for enforcement.