Presentation on theme: "Review 1.What is the primary goal of Interest Groups? 2.Give 3 reasons behind the growth of Interest Groups in the United States 3.What are the reasons."— Presentation transcript:
Review 1.What is the primary goal of Interest Groups? 2.Give 3 reasons behind the growth of Interest Groups in the United States 3.What are the reasons people join Interest Groups? 4.Give 3 ways Interest Groups help support the primary goal of Political Parties.
Spending in the 2012 Election opensecrets.org
NOTE: The organizations themselves did not donate, rather the money came from the organizations' PACs, their individual members or employees or owners, and those individuals' immediate families. Organization totals include subsidiaries and affiliates.
Spending in the 2012 Election opensecrets.org
How Interest Groups Operate Linkage Institutions #6
Interest Group Tactics Insider Strategy Providing Information Earmarks in Legislation Litigation Money and PACs Outsider Strategy Grassroots mobilization Civil Disobedience
Providing Information The single most important tactic of Interest Groups is supplying credible information to legislators Detailed, current information at a premium and can build or destroy a legislator-lobbyist relationship Most effective on narrow, technical issues Often presented in briefings, papers, or Congressional Hearings
Earmarks in Legislation Lobbyists use the exchange of information to convince members of Congress to draft special provisions in legislation to benefit their clients, called Earmarks Types of Earmarks – Contracts – Tax Exemption/Loopholes – Exemption from Regulations
Litigation (Using the Courts) Bringing a Law Suit – When issues include “rights” held by citizens court cases are often brought up (Brown v. Board of Education by NAACP) – Used often when a group does not have “access to legislators” or strong popular support – Sets a precedent that lasts beyond that case. Amicus Curare briefs – Means “friend of court” – Submit written legal arguments to the Court during cases that concern the interest.
PACs and Money Political Action Committees (PACs) – Organizations created by business firms, labor unions, trade associations, ideological groups, and interest groups – Goal is to provide campaign contributions to candidates – Although regulated as of 2009 there were 4,611 PACs operating
PACs and Money Money is the least effective way to influence politicians – Due to growth in PACs more overall money available on all sides of the issues. – Politicians establish their own PACs to advance their cause. – Have largest chance of influence when issue is of little concern to voters ½ of PACs sponsored by corporations, 1/10 of PACs sponsored by unions. PACs tend to support incumbents
Grassroots Mobilization Although insider strategies more common there is a larger use of outsider strategy – Congress members more individualistic – Modern Technology makes it easier Politicians dislike controversy so work with interest groups they agree with Interest Groups target “undecided” legislators and/or legislators in marginal districts Some groups attack their likely allies to embarrass them “Voter Guides” given to members of interest group
Civil Disobedience Tactics have been used more frequently since 1960s Generally more accepted Goals – Disrupt institution and force negotiations – Enlist the support of others – Create martyrs to draw public support
Who uses the various tactics? Providing Information: All Interest Groups who have access to government. More effective on technical issues. Earmarks: Interest Groups with access to government Often done on technical issues that voters have little information or concern for. Litigation- Issues in which rights are involved. Groups that have little public support and/or little access to government. Campaign Contributions: Groups that have large financial resources. Grassroots Mobilization: Groups that may have less financial means but have large numbers of members.
Regulation of Interest Groups Protected by 1 st Amendment Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act (1946) – Accomplished little – Restricted to only direct contact with members of Congress – Grassroots activity not restricted – No staff to enforce law
Regulation of Interest Groups 2005 Reform Act – Requires All Registered Lobbyists to report the following twice a year The names of their clients Their income and expenditures Issues on which they worked – No reform of grassroots organizations – No enforcement agency, but Justice Department can investigate – Tax-exempt, nonprofits cannot receive federal grants if they lobby (Churches, etc.)
Regulation of Interest Groups 2007 Reforms – No gifts of any value allowed from registered lobbyists or firms that employ them – No reimbursement for travel costs from registered lobbyists or firms that employ them – No reimbursement for travel costs from any source if trip is organizes or requested by registered lobbyists or firms that employ them