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CSCI 104 – Essential Computing. 2 Objectives (1 of 2) Describe components of a computer system Describe the contributions and history of the computer.

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Presentation on theme: "CSCI 104 – Essential Computing. 2 Objectives (1 of 2) Describe components of a computer system Describe the contributions and history of the computer."— Presentation transcript:

1 CSCI 104 – Essential Computing

2 2 Objectives (1 of 2) Describe components of a computer system Describe the contributions and history of the computer Discuss the purchase of a computer system Define microprocessor, memory, and auxiliary storage Describe a digital camera Distinguish between system software and application software Describe the evolution of Microsoft Windows

3 3 Objectives (2 of 2) Describe how to safeguard a system Define FTP and distinguish between a compressed file and a self-extracting file Define a local area network Define the Internet and the World Wide Web and e-mail

4 4 Memory Central processing unit (CPU) Input Auxiliary Storage Auxiliary Storage Auxiliary Storage Output Any Computer System

5 5 Parts of a PC

6 6 Inside the PC On Off All computers are based on the binary number system A bit or binary digit has one of two values, zero or one A byte is the smallest addressable unit of memory (8 bits) ASCII provides for 256 (or 2 8 ) characters  01000001 – A  01000010 – B  etc. Why not just speak English?

7 7 The central processing unit (cpu) Interprets and Executes Program Instructions Clock speed = MHz/GHz = millions / billions New race is dual core/quad core Intel & AMD big players Niche Markets: Qualcomm, TI, Via, ARM The Microprocessor

8 8 Memory Transient (erased when power turned off)  Consider a UPS (uninterrupted power supply) Most commonly referred to is “RAM” or Random Access Memory Measured in bytes  1 Kilobyte = 2 10 characters (~1,000 bytes)  1 Megabyte = 2 20 characters (~1,000,000 bytes)  1 Gigabyte = 2 30 characters (~1,000,000,000 bytes) Not uncommon to see 4+ GB’s of RAM in a computer. (4,000,000,000 bytes) The Original PC had 16Kb of memory (16,000 bytes)

9 9 Permanent Storage Floppy Disk  No longer standard Hard disk  30 Gb and higher Removable storage  CD-ROM  CD-R/CD-RW  DVD/DVD-R/DVD-RW  Bluray  Tape  Flash

10 Motherboard Holds and links all of the crucial components of a computer Provides the connections for peripherals (ex. USB, sound jacks) 10

11 Expansion Cards Connect to the motherboard and provide additional capabilities Video cards, Network cards, Modems, etc. 11

12 12 Input Devices

13 13 The Monitor Resolution is expressed in picture elements or pixels; (800 x 600 or 1024 x 768) The higher the resolution, the more you can see at one time. Larger monitors enable you to you run at higher resolutions; e.g., 19” to run 1024 x 768 comfortably A graphics card speeds processing

14 14 Review: Parts of a PC

15 15 The Printer Ink Jet  Today’s entry level Laser  Top-of-the line Four-in-one functionality  Printer, scanner, fax, copier Network printer

16 16 The Digital Camera An image is stored on a photosensitive computer chip, which converts the image to a series of pixels There is no film; images are stored in memory; the more memory the more pictures  2-4Gig is suggested Almost all cameras today take adequate pictures in normal day light for use in 4x6 prints

17 17 The Rise of the Personal Computer Today’s PC dwarf the capabilities of mainframes of earlier generations at a fraction of the cost. The early computers filled entire rooms and literally weighed tons. (b) iMac

18 18 Software System Software – Operating System  Microsoft Windows, Linux, Mac OSX, etc.  Controls the execution of all applications Application Software  Microsoft Office Core applications – Word, Excel, Access, and PowerPoint Personal Information Manager – Outlook  Antivirus software

19 19 Disk and File Management A file is a set of instructions or data  Program file: Microsoft Word or Microsoft Excel  Data File: Document or workbook Copy, move, rename or delete a file A folder allows us to organize our files  May contain files and/or other folders A back up strategy is critical  What (data), When (whenever it changes), Where (off site), How (Windows Explorer), and Who (you)

20 20 A computer virus is an actively infectious program that can erase data and/or alter the way your computer works Computer viruses are spread through a variety of means, especially email and unpatched versions of Windows XP Windows does not include an antivirus program; i.e., you must buy it separately and update it frequently Antivirus Software

21 Spyware 21 Windows does not include any spyware removal program; i.e., you must buy it separately and update it frequently Often more of a problem than viruses for home users Usually after your personal data/identity theft Can also make your computer into a zombie and make it part of giant pool of zombie PC’s for use in SPAM marketing and other nefarious acts.

22 22 File Compression Use WinZip (or compatible) program to create a compressed file or archive

23 23 Introduction to Networks Most people work in a network environment  Home network  Local Area Network (LAN)  Wide Area Network (WAN) The physical structure includes: interface cards (NIC Cards), cables, hubs, switches, and routers

24 24 From LAN to WAN (a) Home Network (b) Local Area Network

25 25 From LAN to WAN (continued) (c) Wide Area Network

26 26 The Internet and World Wide Web The Internet  Network of networks  Began in 1969 as a government project  Original network had 4 computers;  No central authority and thus impossible to know the exact size The World Wide Web  A subset of the Internet consisting of computers that store hypertext documents  Invented by Tim Berners Lee who wanted to share notes with colleagues at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland

27 27 A message travels the Internet All that matters is the beginning and ending address

28 28 Acronyms Abound HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol - used to transmit Web documents. HTTPS: Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secured - used to transmit secured Web documents. HTML: Hypertext Markup Language – used to create documents that can be read by Web browsers. ISP: Internet Service Provider - needed to connect to the Internet. URL: Uniform Resource Locator: WWW address for finding information on the Web. URL,.gov,.com,.org

29 29 A Web Site Web address (or URL) Internet Explorer is the browser HTTP protocol

30 30 The Commercialization of Cyberspace Advantages for the Seller  Open 24/7  Shoppers from anywhere  Virtual inventory is cheaper and extensive  Lower transaction costs  Target your customers Advantages for the Buyer  Open 24/7  Never leave home  Easy to view and explore product line  Comparison shop  Web site knows you E-commerce is the exchange of goods and services via the Internet. It requires a buyer and seller, and a ‘place to meet’

31 31 E-Mail (Electronic Mail) E-mail is simply a means of sending messages via computer There should be no expectation of privacy Every e-mail address is unique and consists of two parts, a username and a host computer; e.g. You can obtain an account at school, pay for an account through an ISP such as AOL, or get free email accounts at sites like or

32 32 Additional E-mail Capabilities Address Book  Contains the e-mail addresses of frequent contacts  Enables you to enter an alias (e.g., “Bob” instead of the complete address) Distribution List  A set of e-mail addresses stored under one name  Ideal for your professor to e-mail the class

33 33 Summary Understand components of a computer system for usage and purchasing Distinguish between system software and application software Understand tools, such as antivirus software and File Compression Learn about Networks, the Internet, WWW, and E-mail

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