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Developing academic literacy and grammatical accuracy through text deconstruction Centre for English Language Communication Workshop Laetitia MONBEC and.

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1 Developing academic literacy and grammatical accuracy through text deconstruction Centre for English Language Communication Workshop Laetitia MONBEC and Mark BROOKE

2 Developing academic literacy and grammatical accuracy through text deconstruction SFL and genre-based pedagogy. Functional Grammar versus traditional grammar Text analysis: rationale Text analysis for lower levels o Common academic features and the table of instantiation o Implementation over a semester-long course o Observations and link to accuracy work o Focus on Individual features: clause complex analysis and cohesion Text analysis for higher levels o Stance and authorial endorsement o Cohesion in texts

3 SFL theory and pedagogy in the classroom Professional learning program Planning, implementing and evaluating the Reading to Learn strategies require high level skills in both classroom teaching and text analysis. Stage 2 Deconstructing the text Stage 3 Joint construction Stage 4 Independent construction of the text Stage 1 Building the context Texts

4 Field: experiential meaning How the grammar conveys information about a topic -choices of nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Tenor: interpersonal meaning How the grammar positions interactants, expresses interrelationships, attitudes, feelings – choices of mood, pronouns, modals, adjectives. Mode: textual meaning How the grammar contributes to text organization. Choices of words starting sentences, pronouns and linking words. TEXTS SIMULTANEOUSLY perform 3 meta-functions construing 3 types of meaning

5 Traditional GrammarFunctional Grammar Sentence focusText & beyond focus Bottom up: grammar syllabus organised by levels of language, from words to word groups to sentences to texts. Top down ‘Experiential’ focusTrinocular description: experiential, interpersonal & textual Rules/ ‘musts’/ right or wrong‘Value’ of choices for meaning-making Social context not important; sentences are things to manipulate; easy-to-teach structures are learnt one by one in isolation; errors are the main focus. Grammar describes & explains how people use language with other people, so many structures used in valued TEXTS are learnt together. Grammar has nothing to do with society or social justice (invisible pedagogy, Bernstein (1975)). Grammatical analyses of texts show how meaning is made, including socially valued and socially unjust meanings (visible pedagogy, Bernstein (1975)).

6 Developing academic literacy and grammatical accuracy through text deconstruction SFL and genre-based pedagogy. Functional Grammar versus traditional grammar Text analysis: rationale Text analysis for lower levels o Common academic features and the table of instantiation o Implementation over a semester-long course o Observations and link to accuracy work o Focus on Individual features: clause complex analysis and cohesion Text analysis for higher levels o Stance and authorial endorsement o Cohesion in texts

7 Rationale for Text Analysis 1) Recognition  production 2) Students mine texts for specific features  language is contextualised (≠ isolated, out of context language items) “The crucial skills that language learners actually need are to recognise categories of language patterns at each level as they read texts … and to use these language patterns flexibly in their writing.” Martin and Rose (2007) Stage 2 Deconstructing the text “From a linguistic perspective, the issue here is the instantiation of language systems in texts; that is, each text is an instance of the entire language system, and each language feature in a text is an instance of one of the options in the language system.” Martin and Rose (2007)

8 Rationale for Text Analysis (ii) 3) Modeling correct instances (≠ Grammar=rules  rules are broken  error-led syllabus) “(Students’) attention will be on doing something intentionally with these features rather than avoiding problems.” S. Bernhardt (1986)

9 SFL and genre-based pedagogy. Functional Grammar versus traditional grammar Text analysis: rationale Text analysis for lower levels o Common academic features and the table of instantiation o Implementation over a semester-long course o Observations and link to accuracy work o Focus on Individual features: clause complex analysis and cohesion Text analysis for higher levels o Stance and authorial endorsement o Cohesion in texts Developing academic literacy and grammatical accuracy through text deconstruction

10 Function Feature Example from the text To express complex thoughts and their logical links. 1. Sentence structure (complex) Sentences including subordinate clauses (adverbial, relative, participle, noun clauses) To refer to/comment on sources. 2. Reporting structures/verbs The research report concludes [that + SV] (Note the noun clause after the reporting verb As Jones (2010) argues,… According to Zhang (2009), … To show caution and tentativeness when presenting arguments. 3. Hedging/Modality Modals: may, might, could Adverbs: perhaps, probably Quantifiers: some Verbs: appear to + V/ seem to + V/ tend to + V Other expressions : x is likely to + V/ there’s a tendency for x to + V To create a less personal or emotional tone. 4. Impersonal structures and the passive voice It is often believed that… There is growing evidence that … This result is often achieved … To discuss abstract concepts in precise and economical ways. 5. Complex noun phrases (headnoun) Continued exposure to such chemicals can lead to reduced functioning of the auto-immune system To create texts that flow logically and are easy for a reader to follow (coherence and cohesion) 6. Cohesive features Lexical chains (synonyms and substitution words): Hong Kong  the SAR  The territory  the city. Lexical sets (related words): computer components, printers, CPUs, memory chips, high tech equipment. General nouns (used to structure a text): problems, causes effect, impact, reasons, issue… Referencing (pronouns and other words) Shopping centres  they  such places Ellipsis (eliminating words) One solution is to..Another [x] is to… Linkers: however, as a result, although… Text analysis for lower level learners: table of instantiation Field Tenor Mode Other influential readings, e.g. Hinkel (2004), Johns (1997), Collins & Hollo (2010), Bloor and Bloor (1995), Eggins (2004)… Students’ needs as new members of the academic discourse community.

11 Implementation in an EAP course Text analysis Individual feature Text analysis Individual feature Consolidation: Alternating text analysis with focus on individual features Focus on interaction  Activity is conducted in groups  Whole class feedback with annotated text on screen Applied to both readings and students’ writing (good samples, self-evaluation and peer feedback) EAP Semester

12 Activities using the table Reading: With a text already seen for comprehension. Table on A3 tacked on walls. Groups complete analysis, then compare with other groups. Findings up on IVLE. Various interaction patterns and groupings possible. Race: Put headings on boards, give a different coloured marker pen to each team. Sts go to board to write an item under each category (can’t repeat an item already there). Google Docs to complete as a race (?) One text on w/b/data projector: teams responsible for one specific feature. Highlight them in text/present findings. One feature in depth over a whole text (especially useful for ‘cohesion’) Writing: students can conduct same activity for their own writing (useful for self and peer feedback) with good student samples/model essays: What makes this a good academic essay? HW or IL activity: complete table for a given text (good way to revise)

13 Task In groups, mine the text for the features listed in the instantiation table. Write the example and the line number. After a few minutes, circulate to see what other groups have found.

14 (1) As Isenberg and Jalongo (1993) point out, early childhood teachers have as great a responsibility to foster the creative development of young children as they do to foster their physical, social and emotional well-being. This perception reinforces that of Wright (1991), whose studies unambiguously favour a move away from the concept of a ‘natural unfolding’ or non-interventionist approach to creative development in early childhood, towards a ‘guided learning’ approach where the carer or teacher actively facilitates this development through (5) every aspect of the early childhood institutional setting. There can be no doubt that such an approach has far-reaching implications for teachers and carers. Firstly, as Isenberg and Jalongo clearly demonstrate (1993, p.255), the physical environment around children has a powerful influence on the quality of learning experiences generally. The findings from their studies consistently suggest that specifics such as colour schemes, floor surfaces and ceiling heights should be imaginatively used to create intimate or open spaces. Greenman’s research (1988, p.107) proposes that (10)strategies varying natural and reflected light are beneficial in sensitising children to the aesthetics of their environment – a view which is strongly supported by Feeney, Christianson and Moravick (1991), who studied models of lighting suitable to a enjoyment of a variety of creative experiences including drama, music movement and visual art. The safe and effective division of large open areas into smaller, cosier and more functional spaces, using dividers or furniture arrangements, has also been shown to be advantageous to children’s appreciation of their environment (Greenman 1988, p.111). (15) Secondly, extensive research into time management confirms that young children require long, uninterrupted periods of time to fully explore the possibilities of the arts media (Feeney, Christianson and Moravick, p.292). Although it is generally accepted that exposure to a variety of play activities significantly develops children’s overall skill pool, Greenman ‘s 1988 studies provide strong evidence that too much of this can ‘deprive children…of the security that comes with predictable routines’ (p.84)… Although it might be argued that much of the above is already entrenched in ‘good practice’ childcare centres, recent evidence would appear (20) to support findings to the contrary (Jackson 2001, Martins 2000). These studies suggest that a high degree of attachment to the previous ‘laissez-faire’ approach to young children’s creative development remains amongst early childhood educators…and they recommend extensive changes to teacher and carer training.

15 Observations A lot of interaction (around language) A challenging activity where students’ contributions are valued Collaboration between teacher and students Building a shared metalanguage and shared knowledge => useful throughout semester (with new texts, in consultation, in peer feedback…) Empowering students with noticing habit/ Confidence and independence building

16 Link with accuracy work Analytical work provides a framework that helps talk about and explain errors. It also raises students’ awareness of their own errors and encourages them to notice where their weaknesses are. FeatureCommon error (CELC) Clause complexSentence structure errors, clauses, run-on, fragments, dangling modifiers and participles CohesionPronoun reference Verb tenses Noun phrasesSubject verb agreement (with headnoun) Determiners/Articles

17 Developing academic literacy and grammatical accuracy through text deconstruction SFL and genre-based pedagogy. Functional Grammar versus traditional grammar Text analysis: rationale Text analysis for lower levels o Common academic features and the table of instantiation o Implementation over a semester-long course o Observations and link to accuracy work o Focus on Individual features: clause complex analysis and cohesion Text analysis for higher levels o Stance and authorial endorsement o Cohesion in texts

18 Clause complex: the grammar of logical meaning Complex sentences to express subtle meanings (Anderson & Davidson, 1988) Difficult to articulate a whole assignment using only simple or compound sentences. (Hinkel, 2004; Hamp-Lyons, 1991b) Being able to analyse clause complex is useful to understand the “structural resources to construe logical connections” (Eggins, 2004, p.256) Sentence analysis/diagramming  Flat tree analysis simplified (Collins and Hollo, 2010)

19 Instructions: 1)Highlight the main verb 2)Find the subject group 3)Identify any other clauses Firstly, as Isenberg and Jalongo clearly demonstrate, the physical environment around children has a powerful influence on the quality of learning experiences generally. ( ) Brief description of the main subordinate clauses used in Academic English: -Adverbial clauses (although…) -Relative clauses (which, that, who…) -Noun clauses (‘that’ after reporting verbs) -Participle clauses (ing/ed)

20 Instructions: 1)Highlight the main verb 2)Find the subject group 3)Identify any other clauses Although it might be argued that much of the above is already entrenched in ‘good practice’ childcare centres, recent evidence would appear to support findings to the contrary. ( ) [ ]

21 Comments and observations Student feedback is positive Students 'sentences become more complex Giving a sense of confidence to students: ‘behind-the-scene’ view Building a metalanguage to use in class Choose your sentences well Focus is on analyzing the choices writers make, not on right answer. Focus on what you can recognise, not the parts you cannot analyse.

22 Developing academic literacy and grammatical accuracy through text deconstruction SFL and genre-based pedagogy. Functional Grammar versus traditional grammar Text analysis: rationale Text analysis for lower levels o Common academic features and the table of instantiation o Implementation over a semester-long course o Observations and link to accuracy work o Focus on Individual features: clause complex analysis and cohesion Text analysis for higher levels o Stance and authorial endorsement o Cohesion in texts

23 Focus on text cohesion Cohesion in English (Halliday and Hasan: 1976). Lexical chains :the various ways the same ‘item’ is mentioned in the text (noun, synonym, pronoun, substitution…) Hong Kong  the SAR  the territory  the city Lexical sets (related words): Synonyms, antonyms; hypernyms; meronyms (part-whole) computer components, printers, CPUs, memory chips, high tech equipment. General nouns are used to structure a text.problems, causes effect, impact, reasons, issue… Substitution (one/ ones, some, any, do/did)Marketing experts found more problems with the survey than respondent did. Referencing (pronouns and other words) Anaphoric, cataphoric, exophoric The, he, we, it, this & that, these & those Ellipsis (eliminating words)One solution is to..Another [x] is to… Linkers: Adjuncts and conjunctions signal textual relations. Additive/Causal/Consequential/Temporal/ Adversative Also, and, furthermore/but, however, yet, though, although/because, so therefore/while, then, next, until, when…

24 General nouns Also called summarizing nouns, shell nouns.. Ex: (this) reason, (these) issues,..factors, evidence, purpose, situation, problems, arguments, consequence, discussion, value, version, proposal, examples, questions, ideas, opinion, cause, effect choice, claim… Help structure a text and guide the reader.  Announce something that will follow in the text: ‘Many factors affect how a person measures…”  Refer back to a more detailed idea/phrase that came before: That process took most of the year to complete.

25 (1) FROM Toronto to Wroclaw, London to Rome, pupils and teachers have been returning to the classroom after their summer break. But this September schools themselves are caught up in a global battle of ideas. In many countries education is at the forefront of political debate, and reformers desperate to improve their national performance are drawing examples of good practice from all over the world. Abstract of revolution in our Schools from The Economist Newspaper Limited, London 917/09/2011). The whole text is available at: Sends to part 2 of the text (after par. 9) Tells the reader about the content of the text. Send to paragraph 4-9 1) Guided analysis In paragraph 1, find: A lexical set 2 lexical chains General nouns

26 (4) Above all, though, there has been a change in the quality of the debate. In particular, what might be called “the three great excuses” for bad schools have receded in importance. Teachers’ unions have long maintained that failures in Western education could be blamed on skimpy government spending, social class and cultures that did not value education. All these make a difference, but they do not determine outcomes by themselves. Factors/the 3 bad excuses Paragraph 5 Paragraph 6 Paragraph 8 The idea that good schooling is about spending money… Many insist, though, that social class makes a difference… Culture is certainly a factor. In paragraph 4, find: 2 general nouns. What do they refer to/prepare the reader for? An ellipsis towards the end of the paragraph. What’s missing? A pronoun reference (end of paragraph)

27 Developing academic literacy and grammatical accuracy through text deconstruction SFL and genre-based pedagogy. Functional Grammar versus traditional grammar Text analysis: rationale Text analysis for lower levels o Common academic features and the table of instantiation o Implementation over a semester-long course o Observations and link to accuracy work o Focus on Individual features: clause complex analysis and cohesion Text analysis for higher levels o Stance and authorial endorsement o Cohesion in texts

28 Activities for higher level learners Stance (authorial endorsement): interpersonal meaning Coherence: textual meaning Function Feature Example from the text To express complex thoughts and their logical links. 1. Sentence structure (complex) Sentences including subordinate clauses (adverbial, relative, participle, noun clauses) To refer to/comment on sources. 2. Reporting structures/verbs The research report concludes [that + SV] (Note the noun clause after the reporting verb As Jones (2010) argues,… According to Zhang (2009), … To show caution and tentativeness when presenting arguments. 3. Hedging/Modality Modals: may, might, could Adverbs: perhaps, probably Quantifiers: some Verbs: appear to + V/ seem to + V/ tend to + V Other expressions : x is likely to + V/ there’s a tendency for x to + V To create a less personal or emotional tone. 4. Impersonal structures and the passive voice It is often believed that… There is growing evidence that … This result is often achieved … To discuss abstract concepts in precise and economical ways. 5. Complex noun phrases (headnoun) Continued exposure to such chemicals can lead to reduced functioning of the auto-immune system To create texts that flow logically and are easy for a reader to follow (coherence and cohesion) 6. Cohesive features Lexical chains (synonyms and substitution words): Hong Kong  the SAR  The territory  the city. Lexical sets (related words): computer components, printers, CPUs, memory chips, high tech equipment. General nouns (used to structure a text): problems, causes effect, impact, reasons, issue… Referencing (pronouns and other words) Shopping centres  they  such places Ellipsis (eliminating words) One solution is to..Another [x] is to… Linkers: however, as a result, although…

29 Authorial endorsement & Disendorsement Feeney, Christianson and Moravick’s (1991) extensive research into time management confirms that young children require long, uninterrupted periods of time to fully explore the possibilities of the arts media. Savulescu (2004) claims that controlled use of performance enhancing drugs should be permitted.

30 Strong alignment/ endorsement with propositions Strong distance from propositions Coakley’s (2010) views on positive deviance in sport convincingly substantiate earlier studies from Durkheim and Merton. Strong endorsement Moderate endorsement Some endorsement No or little endorsement: His research goes some way to supporting the evidence provided by Beal (2004). While his research tends to provide some support to previous studies (Coakley, 2010), this view is open to challenge (Anderson, 2010). His research does not substantiate earlier studies on performance enhancement in sport. Authorial Endorsement

31 This is clearly espoused by… Authorial endorsement Strong alignment/ endorsement with propositions Validate, claim, purport, contend, allege Although Coakley claims that…, While his argument is effective, Likelihood, prospect, potential, conjecture Convincing, attainable, plausible (It is probably true / likely/ that Coakley’s claims are debatable....) Adjectives Nouns Concessive clauses Passive constructions Evaluative verbs Adverbs

32 (1) As Isenberg and Jalongo (1993) point out, early childhood teachers have as great a responsibility to foster the creative development of young children as they do to foster their physical, social and emotional well-being. This perception reinforces that of Wright (1991), whose studies unambiguously favour a move away from the concept of a ‘natural unfolding’ or non-interventionist approach to creative development in early childhood, towards a ‘guided learning’ approach where the carer or teacher actively facilitates this development through every aspect (5) of the early childhood institutional setting. There can be no doubt that such an approach has far-reaching implications for teachers and carers. Firstly, as Isenberg and Jalongo clearly demonstrate (1993, p.255), the physical environment around children has a powerful influence on the quality of learning experiences generally. The findings from their studies consistently suggest that specifics such as colour schemes, floor surfaces and ceiling heights should be imaginatively used to create intimate or open spaces. Greenman’s research (1988, p.107) proposes that (10)strategies varying natural and reflected light are beneficial in sensitising children to the aesthetics of their environment – a view which is strongly supported by Feeney, Christianson and Moravick (1991), who studied models of lighting suitable to a enjoyment of a variety of creative experiences including drama, music movement and visual art. The safe and effective division of large open areas into smaller, cosier and more functional spaces, using dividers or furniture arrangements, has also been shown to be advantageous to children’s appreciation of their environment (Greenman 1988, p.111). (15) Secondly, extensive research into time management confirms that young children require long, uninterrupted periods of time to fully explore the possibilities of the arts media (Feeney, Christianson and Moravick, p.292). Although it is generally accepted that exposure to a variety of play activities significantly develops children’s overall skill pool, Greenman ‘s 1988 studies provide strong evidence that too much of this can ‘deprive children…of the security that comes with predictable routines’ (p.84)… Although it might be argued that much of the above is already entrenched in ‘good practice’ childcare centres, recent evidence would appear (20) to support findings to the contrary (Jackson 2001, Martins 2000). These studies suggest that a high degree of attachment to the previous ‘laissez-faire’ approach to young children’s creative development remains amongst early childhood educators…and they recommend extensive changes to teacher and carer training. Evaluative verbs (validate, claim, purport, contend, allege) Adverbs (It is probably true that Coakley’s claims are debatable....) Passive constructions: (is clearly supported by). Adjectives (possible, probable). Nouns (likelihood, possibility, potential). Concessive clauses (although, while).

33 (1) As Isenberg and Jalongo (1993) point out, early childhood teachers have as great a responsibility to foster the creative development of young children as they do to foster their physical, social and emotional well-being. This perception reinforces that of Wright (1991), whose studies unambiguously favour a move away from the concept of a ‘natural unfolding’ or non-interventionist approach to creative development in early childhood, towards a ‘guided learning’ approach where the carer or teacher actively facilitates this development through every aspect (5) of the early childhood institutional setting. There can be no doubt that such an approach has far-reaching implications for teachers and carers. Firstly, as Isenberg and Jalongo clearly demonstrate (1993, p.255), the physical environment around children has a powerful influence on the quality of learning experiences generally. The findings from their studies consistently suggest that specifics such as colour schemes, floor surfaces and ceiling heights should be imaginatively used to create intimate or open spaces. Greenman’s research (1988, p.107) proposes that (10)strategies varying natural and reflected light are beneficial in sensitising children to the aesthetics of their environment – a view which is strongly supported by Feeney, Christianson and Moravick (1991), who studied models of lighting suitable to a enjoyment of a variety of creative experiences including drama, music movement and visual art. The safe and effective division of large open areas into smaller, cosier and more functional spaces, using dividers or furniture arrangements, has also been shown to be advantageous to children’s appreciation of their environment (Greenman 1988, p.111). (15) Secondly, extensive research into time management confirms that young children require long, uninterrupted periods of time to fully explore the possibilities of the arts media (Feeney, Christianson and Moravick, p.292). Although it is generally accepted that exposure to a variety of play activities significantly develops children’s overall skill pool, Greenman ‘s 1988 studies provide strong evidence that too much of this can ‘deprive children…of the security that comes with predictable routines’ (p.84)… Although it might be argued that much of the above is already entrenched in ‘good practice’ childcare centres, recent evidence would appear (20) to support findings to the contrary (Jackson 2001, Martins 2000). These studies suggest that a high degree of attachment to the previous ‘laissez-faire’ approach to young children’s creative development remains amongst early childhood educators…and they recommend extensive changes to teacher and carer training.

34 CONTRACTIONCharacteristics DISCLAIM DENY COUNTER PROCLAIM CONCUR PRONOUNCE ENDORSEMENT Heteroglossia EXPANSION ENTERTAINING ACKNOWLEDGING DISTANCING

35 Intertextuality Heteroglossia Neutral: X states Indicated: X clearly demonstrates Source type Personalization Institutional: WHO holds that… Impersonal: The study of East Germans demonstrates Identification A prominent researcher Jones (2010)… Specification Specific: The athletes who have tested positive… Generic: Athletes who test positive… Grouping Aggregation: 40 % of athletes said that they had taken PEDs Collective: Athletes state that Association: Both WADA and the IOC have sworn to eradicate PEDs from sport. Textual integration Inserted: X stated that “the dominant mode of sport was based on a power and performance model”. Assimilated: X stated that violent struggle rather than well-being was often portrayed as the hegemonic force in elite sports. Endorsement Disendorsement X claims

36 THEME/ topic The ‘launch pad’ (Thornbury, 2005: 38). Start of the discourse = the ‘point of departure’ (Halliday, 1985: 38). Theme is the ‘peg on which the message is hung.’ (Halliday, 1985; 38) What is considered ‘newsworthy’ (Halliday, 1985: 38) about the topic. Rheme is very important in that it tends to carry the most salient information in the clause. In English, there is a tendency to put new information in the latter part of the clause. This is called: ‘End-weight’ (Thornbury, 2005: 39). The ancient Egyptians buried their pharaohs in tombs called pyramids. RHEME/ comment Coherence

37 My friend, John He is a farmer. He told me that being a farmer is a good job. It means a lot of hard work but it is very rewarding. He told me he likes sea fishing. He gave me two main reasons. The first is the excitement of the hunt. The second is the delicious fish. He is a farmer. He told me that being a farmer is a good job. It means a lot of hard work but it is very rewarding He told me he likes sea fishing. He gave me two main reasons. The first is the excitement of the hunt. The second is the delicious fish.

38 Firstly, as Isenberg and Jalongo clearly demonstrate (1993, p.255), the physical environment around children (theme 1) has a powerful influence on the quality of learning experiences generally (rheme 1). The findings from their studies consistently suggest that specifics such as colour schemes, floor surfaces and ceiling heights (theme 2) should be imaginatively used to create intimate or open spaces (rheme 2). Greenman’s research (1988, p.107) proposes that strategies varying natural and reflected light (….) are beneficial in sensitising children to the aesthetics of their environment – a view which is strongly supported by Feeney, Christianson and Moravick (1991), who studied models of lighting suitable to an enjoyment of a variety of creative experiences including drama, music movement and visual art (….). The safe and effective division of large open areas into smaller, cosier and more functional spaces, using dividers or furniture arrangements (….), has also been shown to be advantageous to children’s appreciation of their environment (…) (Greenman 1988, p.111). Thematic progression Theme 1 + Rheme 1 Theme 2 (Theme 1) + Rheme 2

39 Theme and thematic progression Theme 1 Theme 2 Theme 3 Theme 4 Rheme 1 Split rheme Rheme 3 Rheme 4 Adding a theme and rheme and sum up is required. Rheme 3 & 4 are linked (unusual in English). is not clearly signposted as open spaces proposition not signposted clearly Rheme 4 is used to (dubiously) refer back to Theme 1 to round up (environment).

40 Firstly, as Isenberg and Jalongo clearly demonstrate (1993, p.255), the physical environment around children (theme 1) has a powerful influence on the quality of learning experiences generally (rheme 1). The findings from their studies consistently suggest that specifics such as colour schemes, floor surfaces and ceiling heights (theme 2) should be imaginatively used to create intimate or open spaces (rheme 2). Greenman’s research (1988, p.107) proposes that strategies varying natural and reflected light (….) are beneficial in sensitising children to the aesthetics of their environment – a view which is strongly supported by Feeney, Christianson and Moravick (1991), who studied models of lighting suitable to an enjoyment of a variety of creative experiences including drama, music movement and visual art (….). The safe and effective division of large open areas into smaller, cosier and more functional spaces, using dividers or furniture arrangements (….), has also been shown to be advantageous to children’s appreciation of their environment (…) (Greenman 1988, p.111).

41 Firstly, as Isenberg and Jalongo clearly demonstrate (1993, p.255), the physical environment around children (theme 1) has a powerful influence on the quality of learning experiences generally (rheme 1). The findings from their studies consistently suggest that specifics such as colour schemes, floor surfaces and ceiling heights (theme 2) should be imaginatively used to create intimate or open spaces (rheme 2). Greenman’s research (1988, p.107) proposes that strategies exploiting these three phenomenon to vary natural and reflected light in open spaces (theme 3) are beneficial in sensitising children to the aesthetics of their environment (rheme 3). This (theme 4) is also strongly supported by Feeney, Christianson and Moravick (1991), who studied models of lighting in open spaces suitable to an enjoyment of a variety of creative experiences including drama, music movement and visual art (rheme 4). The safe and effective division of large open areas into smaller, cosier and more functional spaces, using dividers or furniture arrangements (theme 5) has also been shown to be advantageous to children’s appreciation of their environment (Greenman 1988, p.111) (rheme 5). For example, Isenberg and Jalongo (1993) clearly demonstrate that quiet, intimate areas for extensive reading (theme 6) can be more beneficial than open spaces (rheme 6). To sum up, the research conducted has clearly demonstrated that these changes to the environment, particularly with regard to the imaginative use of open or intimate spaces, (theme 7) can substantially improve children’s learning experiences (rheme 7). Simple rewriting

42 Theme and thematic progression Theme 1 Theme 2 Theme 3 Theme 4 Rheme 1 Rheme 2 Rheme 3 Rheme 4 Theme 5 Theme 6 Rheme 5 Rheme 6 Theme 7 Rheme 7 Notice here the break between R4 & T5 to retrieve split rheme 2 Notice here the break between R6 & T7 to set up rounding off. Notice here how R6 closes split rheme. Split rheme more effectively signposted T3 makes ‘open spaces’ explicit T4 & R4 added to reduce noun phrase. T6 & R6 added to provide balance in evidence used. T1 & R1 permeate throughout text

43 Texture/ textuality Sinclair (1994: 15): ‘The text, at any particular time carries with it everything that a competent reader needs in order to understand the current state of the text.’

44 Firstly, as Isenberg and Jalongo clearly demonstrate (1993, p.255) The findings from their studies consistently suggest that SPLIT RHEME: open and intimate spaces Greenman’s research (1988, p.107) Feeney, Christianson and Moravick (1991) Greenman (1988, p.111) Isenberg and Jalongo (1993) Balancing sources Using endorsement for textual meaning

45 Conclusion and questions Theoretically-informed activities based on whole texts, authentic language. Focus on writers’ choices rather than rules. An approach adapted to various proficiency levels. Positive feedback and effectiveness. Issues of theory into practice; levels of knowledge and role of the teacher Assessment Alignment. One theory for one Language centre?

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