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The Solar System. THE UNIVERSE The universe is everything physical that exists in space. The universe is made up of galaxies.

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Presentation on theme: "The Solar System. THE UNIVERSE The universe is everything physical that exists in space. The universe is made up of galaxies."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Solar System

2 THE UNIVERSE The universe is everything physical that exists in space. The universe is made up of galaxies

3 The Sound of the Big Bang - Picture and Sound Clip - MSN Encarta The Big Bang Theory suggests the universe began with a big explosion 15 billion years ago

4 3 kinds of galaxies irregular)

5 A galaxy is a collection of stars, dust, gas classified by its shape. Spiral has a bulge in the dense center with arms extending outward Elliptical is an egg shape with mostly old stars Irregular lacks definite shape Our solar system is in the Milky Way galaxy – a spiral galaxy

6

7 The Milky Way Galaxy is a disc about 100,000 light years across and around 2000 light years thick.

8 We measure the distance to planets in our solar system in astronomical units or light years The distance from the sun to the Earth is called an Astronomical unit ( AU) 1 AU = 93 million miles or 150 million kilometers

9 A light year is a measure of distance, not time. It represents how far light will travel in one year. Light travels at about 300 million meters per sec ( 3 X 10 8 m/s) “c” 1 light year = 9.5 X 10 15 meters It takes light about 5½ hours to travel across the solar system, so a light year is much bigger than this

10 Our solar system consists of the sun, eight planets, moons, dwarf planets, the asteroid belt, comets, meteors, and other debris. The sun is the center of our solar system ALL planets, asteroids, and comets orbit the sun. The SUN is our closest star, it is over 100 times the size of the Earth Moons orbit their planets

11 Our Sun is a normal main-sequence G2 star, one of more than 100 billion stars in our galaxy.G2billion The next nearest star to us (apart from the Sun) is Proxima Centauri, which is about 4¼ light years away. Also known as Alpha Centauri

12 A planet is a celestial body that orbits the Sun… 8 or 9?????

13 The solar system Solar System Pictures Just Served Us Nine Pizzas Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto My Very Educated Mother Mercury Venus Earth Mars

14 An area of 1000’s of asteroids in an elliptical orbit between Mars and Jupiter. The Asteroid Belt

15 The Asteroid Belt separates the inner planets from the outer planets CeresCeres, the largest object in the asteroid belt is a dwarf planet Asteroids that are on a collision course with Earth are called meteoroids.meteoroids Gaspar

16 Ceres (lower left) with the Earth and moon

17 This picture shows the sizes of the original three dwarf planets (Pluto, Ceres, and Eris) as compared to Earth. It also shows Pluto's large moon Charon (and its two small moons Nix and Hydra) and Eris's moon Dysnomia to scale. None of the distances between objects in this image are to scale. Images courtesy of NASA

18 What happened to Pluto??? READ ONLY: In 2006 the International Astronomical Union (IAU) approved a new classification scheme for planets and smaller objects in our Solar System. Their scheme includes three classes of objects: "small solar system bodies" (including most asteroids and comets), the much larger planets (including Earth, Jupiter, and so on), and the new category of in-between sized "dwarf planets".planetsSolar SystemasteroidscometsEarthJupiter

19 There are currently three official dwarf planets. Pluto, formerly the smallest of the nine "traditional" planets, was demoted to dwarf planet status. Ceres, the largest asteroid in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, was also declared a dwarf planet. The third and final (for now!) dwarf planet is Eris, an icy body on the edge of our Solar System that was discovered recently in 2005. Eris was temporarily labeled 2003 UB313 when it was first discovered, and given the nickname "Xena", before astronomers settled on the official name of Eris.PlutoCeresEris

20 Both planets and dwarf planets orbit the Sun, not other planets (in which case we call them moons). Both must be large enough that their own gravity pulls them into the shapes of spheres; this rules out numerous smaller bodies like most asteroids, many of which have irregular shapes. Planets clear smaller objects out of their orbits by sucking the small bodies into themselves or flinging them out of orbit. Dwarf planets, with their weaker gravities, are unable to clear out their orbits.orbitSunirregular shapes orbits

21 Though there are just three dwarf planets now, their number is expected to grow. Scientists estimate there may be 70 dwarf planets amongst outer solar system objects that have been discovered already. Since we don't know the actual sizes or shapes of many of the objects we've found (because they are so far away), we can't yet determine whether they are actually dwarf planets or not. More observations and better telescopes will help us determine which other objects are dwarf planets. Astronomers speculate that there may be 200 or so dwarf planets out through the distance of the Kuiper Belt, an icy band of frozen planetoids on the edge of our Solar System.Kuiper Belt

22 The outer gaseous planets planetDist From sun Period of Revolution (1 year) Rotation (1 day) Diameter miles atmosph ere Avg temp o K # moo ns Jupiter5.2 au 11.8 years 9.8 hrs 88729H, He, methane ammonia -12063 Saturn9.5 au 29.5 years 10 hrs 74600H, He, methane ammonia -18018 ring Uranus19.2 au 84 years 18 hrs 32600H, He, methane ammonia -21015 Neptune30 au 165 years 19 hrs 30200H, He, methane -2202

23 The inner terrestrial planets Planet Dist From sun Period of Revolution (1 year) Rotation (1 day) Diameter miles atmosphe re Avg temp o K # moo ns Mercury.4 au 88 days59 days 3,030N/A4520 Venus.7 au 225 days 243 days 7,500CO 2 H 2 SO 4 7260 Earth 1 au 365 1/4 days 24 hours 7,926N, O2931 Mars http://www.nineplanets.or g/mars.html 1.5 au 687 days 25 hours 4,222CO 2 -1502


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