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Astronomy: Solar System

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Presentation on theme: "Astronomy: Solar System"— Presentation transcript:

1 Astronomy: Solar System

2 The Solar System Consists of the sun, 8 planets, and their moons, and several kinds of smaller objects that revolve around the sun

3 Our Solar System’s Only Star:
Only one star

4 The Sun: The Sun is the only star in the solar system
The sun's light takes about 8 minutes to reach the Earth after it has been emitted from the sun's surface. About 109x the size of Earth

5 Our sun in comparison to other stars:
The Sun is a medium sized star There are giant stars that are 100x larger than the sun

6 What is a planet? 3 Criteria:
1) An object that orbits a star 2) Large enough to become rounded by its own gravity 3) Able to clear its own orbit of objects, such as asteroids, meteoroids, other space junk!

7 The Solar System The 4 inner planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) are called terrestrial planets The outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) are called gas giants

8 Jupiter Saturn Relative Sizes of the planets: Earth Neptune Uranus
On your notes, put the planets in order from largest to smallest Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Earth Mercury Venus Mars

9 Relative Sizes of the planets:
Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Earth Venus Mars Mercury

10 Actual Distance from Sun (km)
Planet Actual Distance from Sun (km) Mercury 57,900,000 Venus 108,200,000 Earth 149,600,000 Earth’s Moon (Distance from Earth) 384,403 Mars 228,000,000 Jupiter 778,400,000 Saturn 1,426,700,000 Uranus 2,866,900,000 Neptune 4,486,100,000 Relative Distances of the planets:

11 The Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun  Is the largest of the terrestrial planets

12 The Moon Earth’s only natural satellite
The Moon is in synchronous rotation with Earth (the same side is always facing the Earth)

13 The Moon Size: 3,476 km in diameter (a little less than the distance across the United States) Distance from Earth: 384,403 km (110x the distance across the United States)

14 The Other planets also have moons:
Number of moons Jupiter 60+ Saturn 31+ Uranus 25+ Neptune 13+

15 What’s with Pluto? 1. The object must be in orbit around the Sun.
Well, Pluto does that! 2. A "planet" has to be big enough that gravity squeezes it into a round shape. Well, Pluto does that. 3. A planet must be big enough that it's gravity removes other objects that occupy the same orbit. But Pluto does not meet this criterion.

16 Poor Pluto… So, Pluto is considered to be a DWARF PLANET

17 A name given for Dwarf planets (like Pluto) beyond Neptune
Plutoids A name given for Dwarf planets (like Pluto) beyond Neptune

18 Have elliptical orbits
Asteroids Rocky objects that are too small (1-100 km in diameter) and too numerous to be considered planets They revolve around the sun in the asteroid belt (between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter) Have elliptical orbits

19 Loose collections of ice, dust, and rocky particles
Comets Loose collections of ice, dust, and rocky particles Revolve around the sun in a very long, narrow elliptical orbit Most comets are found in the Kuiper belt (extends beyond Neptune’s orbit) or the Oort cloud Main parts: nucleus, coma, and tail

20 Meteoroid Chunk of rock or dust in space Come from comets or asteroids

21 Meteors When a meteoroid enters Earth’s atmosphere, friction with the air creates heat and produces a streak of light in the sky called a meteor

22 Meteorite If a meteoroid does not burn up completely, it passes through the atmosphere and hits the Earth’s surface and is called a meteorite


24 Put the following space objects in order from LARGEST to SMALLEST:
Planet Asteroid Star Moon

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