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Chemistry! What does this have to do with Biology????

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Presentation on theme: "Chemistry! What does this have to do with Biology????"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemistry! What does this have to do with Biology????

2 Bell Ringer: Use the graph below to answer the following questions a.Which 4 elements are the most common in the human body? b. Which 2 elements compose a little over 25% of the body? c. Why do you think there is a lot of oxygen and hydrogen in the human body?

3 Section 6.1 Summary – pages Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), & Nitrogen (N) make up over 96% of the mass of a human body!!! PIE CHART

4 Objective/Topic Objective: SWBAT: Describe the structure of an atom in an atom building activity. Topic: Atoms and Elements

5 Why Study Chemistry? Chemistry is the study of matter, its composition, and properties. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.

6 Atoms: Definition: building blocks of matter Made up of three subatomic particles: 1.Protons (positively charged) 2.Neutrons (no charge) 3.Electrons (negatively charged)

7 Structure of An Atom Neutrons and Protons are located at the center of the atom which is called the nucleus. Electrons are located in energy levels that circle the nucleus. Atoms contain an equal number of protons and electrons, so the overall charge is 0

8 Structure of An Atom Electron energy levels (Electrons) Nucleus (Protons and Neutrons) Label Your Atom!

9 Electron Energy Levels 1 st  2 e- 2 nd  8 e- 3 rd  18 e- # electrons = # protons; Net Charge = 0 Electron Energy Levels

10 SUBATOMIC PARTICLE CHARGELOCATION IN THE ATOM PROTONPOSITIVEIn the NUCLEUS NEUTRONNo CHARGEIn the NUCLEUS ELECTRONNEGATIVEIn the energy levels

11 Elements Definition: Pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances. Made up of ONE type of atom. Example: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen

12 Hydrogen 1 H The Periodic Table: A Key to the Elements Element Atomic # Symbol Atomic Mass State of Matter P P + N

13 Atomic Number and Atomic Mass Atomic number: Atomic Mass: the number of protons in the nucleus the total number of particles in the nucleus (protons + neutrons)

14 Atomic Structure Lab Review! Protons: positive charge (p + ) Neutrons: no charge/neutral (n 0 ) Electrons: negative charge (e-) Energy Levels: 1st  2 e- 2nd  8 e- 3rd  18 e- Net Charge of an Atom: = ZERO p+ and e- cancel each other

15 ATOMIC STRUCTURE LAB! Red = PROTONS (p + ) White = NEUTRONS (n 0 ) Green = ELECTRONS (e - )

16 Expectations (How to get an A) Work with 1 partner 18 beans DO NOT drop, throw, or lose them. Your grade depends on your responsibility with the beans.

17 Atomic Structure Lab Finish! Lay out beans on diagram Draw pictures Answer questions

18 Homework: Vocabulary Foldable: 1.Chemistry 2.Atom 3.Elements 4.Atomic Mass 5.Atomic Number

19 Bell Ringer Look at the graph below and answer the following questions a.Which element has the highest percent in living things? b.What is the label on the y-axis? c.Which elements are most abundant on the earth?

20 Objective/Topic Objective: SWBAT: Compare and contrast ionic and covalent bonds in a Venn Diagram. Topic: Chemical Bonds

21 Demonstration Glucose is a simple sugar that provides energy for cells. In this demonstration, I will use a reagent called Benedict’s Solution, which indicates the presence of glucose and other simple sugars in food. A color change determines whether or not these foods have sugar.

22 Glucose Molecule

23 Directions: Use the table on your notes to fill in the data as we go. Take one minute, and predict for each item whether or not they have sugar (glucose)

24 Analysis Questions: Did any of the foods contain simple sugars? How do you know? Could a food labeled “Sugar-Free” test positive using Benedict’s solution as an indicator. Explain why or why not.

25 Sulfur 16 S Use the information about Sulfur from the periodic table to answer the following questions: a.What is the atomic number? b.What is the Chemical Symbol c.How many electrons does Sulfur have? d.What is the atomic mass? e.How many neutrons does Sulfur have? 16 S P + N = Atomic Mass REVIEW!!!

26 Think, Pair, Share Describe how you think the sugars in food “Stick” together. How do you think they are broken apart?

27 BONDING!!!!!! When we digest food, we break the bonds and release the energy we need.

28 A compound is a substance that is composed of atoms of two or more different elements that are chemically combined. Example: Table salt is NaCl (Sodium + Chlorine) Compounds and Bonding

29 Stability Stable atoms’ outer energy levels are filled with electrons Ex: 8 electrons in the 2 nd energy level A stable atom is happy An unstable atom is unhappy 

30 Covalent Bonds Elements can SHARE electrons to fill their energy shells to become more stable Covalent bond: the force that holds 2 atoms together by sharing electrons Sugars, fats, proteins and water are all held together by covalent bonds!

31 Two hydrogen atoms can combine with each other by sharing their electrons. Each atom becomes stable by sharing its electron with the other atom. Hydrogen molecule HOW DO COVALENT BONDS FORM?

32 Covalent Bonding (Water - H 2 0)

33 Ionic Bonds Atoms usually have equal numbers of positive protons and negative electrons so they are neutral (charge = Sometimes an atom gains or loses an electron in it’s outer shell, becoming charged (+ or -) 0)

34 Attractive force between two ions of opposite charge Ex: Na loses an e- to Cl to form NaCl IONIC BONDS Ions Charged particles made of atoms Ionic bond

35 Tim Moby

36 In Your Notes! Draw a Venn Diagram that Compares and Contrasts Ionic Bonds and Covalent Bonds.

37 Homework: Vocabulary Foldable with the terms: 1.Compound 2.Covalent Bond 3.Ion 4.Ionic Bond 5.Molecule

38 Bell Ringer/Objective Bell Ringer: Compare and Contrast ionic and covalent bonds (draw a Venn Diagram) Objective: SWBAT: Describe the importance of enzymes in chemical reactions in a demonstration.

39 Demonstration When sliced, an apple’s soft tissue is exposed to oxygen, causing a chemical reaction called oxidation. Enzymes in the apple speed this reaction, producing darkened, discolored fruit. In this demo, we will investigate methods used to slow this enzymatic browning.

40 Directions: Make your predictions on your data table. We will fill in the data table after lecture.

41 Chemical Reactions When you lie down for the night, you might think that your body is completely at rest. In fact, you are still digesting the food that you ate that day, the scrape on your elbow is healing, and your muscles and bones are growing and developing. All the things that happen inside your body are the result of chemical reactions!

42 Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction is the process by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are reorganized into different substances.

43 Example: The rust on the car is a compound called iron oxide (Fe2O3), and it was formed when oxygen (O) in the air interacted with the iron (Fe) in the car.

44 Chemical Equations: Reactant: the starting substances on the left side of the chemical equation. Products: the ending substances on the right side of the chemical equation. Ex.

45 Check For Understanding Which of the following is a chemical reaction? a.tearing paper into strips b.burning paper c.picking up iron filings with a magnet

46 Activation Energy Activation energy is the minimum amount of energy needed for reactants to form products in a chemical reaction. Ex. A candle will not burn until you light its wick. Food needs to be cooked in order for the ingredients to come together.

47 Enzymes Catalyst- a substance that lowers the activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction. Enzymes- special proteins that are biological catalysts that speed up the rate of chemical reactions in biological processes. Ex. Amylase (enzyme found in saliva to speed up digestion)

48 Check For Understanding The various enzymes in our bodies are _____. a.lipids b.carbohydrates c.proteins

49 Demo: Look at the apple slices and fill in your data table. 1.Analyze how each treatment affected the chemical reaction that occurred on the apple. What made it successful? 2.If a restaurant owner wanted to serve fresh- cut fruit, which preparation method might he choose?

50 Homework: Finish analysis questions from the demonstration.

51 CATALYST 1.Write down all the uses for water you can think of. 2. What are the three states of matter? Which state is water in?

52 Objective/Topic Objective: SWBAT: Summarize the three properties of water in teacher-led demonstrations. Topic: Water/PH scale

53 OIL AND WATER 1. HYPOTHESIS- What will happen when oil and water mix?

54 OIL AND WATER 2. RESULTS- What did happen when water and oil mixed?

55 HYPOTHESIS- What do you think will happen to the balloon filled with air when it is placed over the flame?

56 HYPOTHESIS- What do you think will happen to the balloon filled with water when it is placed over the flame?

57 DROPS ON A PENNY 1. HYPOTHESIS- How many drops of water can be placed on a penny before it spills over?

58 RECALL… What is the chemical symbol for water? H2O What is water made of? Hydrogen and Oxygen

59 How is the compound H 2 0 formed? Hydrogen gas reacting with oxygen

60 Shared electrons Hydrogen Oxygen

61 Water & Its Importance Water is perhaps the most important compound in living organisms. Water makes up 70% – 95% of most organisms.

62 Take Notes! Why is water so important? Water makes up 70% – 95% of most organisms Topic: Properties of Water

63 Water Is Polar Sometimes, when atoms form covalent bonds, they do not share the electrons equally. This is called a polar bond. A polar molecule is a molecule with an unequal distribution of charge; that is, each molecule has a positive end and a negative end. – Ex: water

64 Sugar Molecules Dissolving Water can dissolve many ionic compounds, such as salt, and many other polar molecules, such as sugar.

65 Water has surface tension Water molecules also attract each other (hydrogen bonding) Floating on water Capillary action

66 Fresh morning dew on a Water Horsetail Surface tension prevents a coin from sinking: the coin is denser than water, so it cannot be floating due to buoyancy alone.

67 Water Resists Temperature Changes Water resists changes in temperature. Therefore, water requires more heat to increase its temperature than do most other common liquids.

68 Why does ice float?

69 Why do roads crack in places with cold winters?

70 Water Expands When It Freezes Ice is less dense than liquid water so it floats as it forms in a body of water.

71 Take Notes! 1.Water is polar (has a + and - end) 2.Water resists temperature changes 3.Water expands when it freezes Topic: Properties of Water Unique properties of water How do living things use water? - Maintaining temperature - Transportation in the body - Dissolving things (ex: sugars) - Digesting food, breathing, and lubricating joints

72 HYDROPHOBIC- water hating, when water (polar) is combined with a non polar substance Example- drops of water on a leaf OR oil in water HYDROPHILIC – water loving, when water (polar) is combined with a polar substance Example – magic snow

73 Water! Tim Moby

74 1. Water is made from 2 different elements: positively charged _____________ and negatively charged _____________. 2. Water’s ___________ is what makes the molecules clump together into round drops and also causes the skin, or _________________ that forms on the surface of water. 3. Water is known as the ______________ solvent, which means it is good at dissolving just about anything. 4. The salt dissolved in sea water _________ the oceans freezing point. 5. Water is the main ingredient of our ________, fills our cells, and makes up about ____% of our body weight. 6. Water covers over ____% of our Earth’s surface Surface tension Oxygen stickiness universal lowers blood Hydrogen 65 70

75 pH pH is how acidic or basic a solution is A scale with values from 0-14 is used to measure pH Strong Acid Weak BaseWeak AcidNeutralStrong Base

76 ACIDS pH below 7, sour or bitter taste, forms H+ ions in water

77 BASES pH above 7, forms OH- ions in water

78 NEUTRAL pH of 7, not an acid or base


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