Presentation on theme: "The Chemistry of Life Some Simple Chemistry, Water."— Presentation transcript:
The Chemistry of Life Some Simple Chemistry, Water
Topics The Structure of Atoms The Octet Rule Isotopes and Ions Chemical Bonds Water Acids and bases The pH Scale Buffers
The Structure of Atoms Some Definitions Matter is anything that occupies space.Matter is anything that occupies space. Element is matter composed of atoms of only one kindElement is matter composed of atoms of only one kind Atoms are the smallest particles into which an element can be divided. For example, carbon is an element composed of only carbon atoms.Atoms are the smallest particles into which an element can be divided. For example, carbon is an element composed of only carbon atoms.
An atom is made up of 3 subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons: have a positive electrical charge. The number of protons in each atom is unique. The proton number is called the atomic number. Carbon has 6 protons (only carbon has 6 protons), nitrogen – 7, oxygen – 8, sodium – 11, chlorine – 17 ….etc.Protons: have a positive electrical charge. The number of protons in each atom is unique. The proton number is called the atomic number. Carbon has 6 protons (only carbon has 6 protons), nitrogen – 7, oxygen – 8, sodium – 11, chlorine – 17 ….etc.
Neutrons: have no electrical charge. Protons and neutrons in an atom form the a central nucleus. The sum of both numbers is the atomic mass (weight). Carbon – C has 6 protons and 6 neutrons, so the atomic mass is 12. Nitrogen – N 7 and 7 – 14, sodium Na 11 and 12 – 23, chlorine Cl 17 and 18 – 35.Neutrons: have no electrical charge. Protons and neutrons in an atom form the a central nucleus. The sum of both numbers is the atomic mass (weight). Carbon – C has 6 protons and 6 neutrons, so the atomic mass is 12. Nitrogen – N 7 and 7 – 14, sodium Na 11 and 12 – 23, chlorine Cl 17 and 18 – 35.
Electrons: have a negative electrical charge. The number of electrons in an atom is equal to the number of protons. For example, carbon 6 protons and 6 electrons, oxygen 8 and 8, sodium 11 and 11, chlorine 17 and 17.Electrons: have a negative electrical charge. The number of electrons in an atom is equal to the number of protons. For example, carbon 6 protons and 6 electrons, oxygen 8 and 8, sodium 11 and 11, chlorine 17 and 17.
Electrons determine the chemical behavior of atoms Electrons are associated with energy –electrons have energy of position, called potential energy –the field of energy around an atom is arranged as levels called electron shells
Electron shells have specific numbers of orbitals that may be filled with electrons –atoms that have incomplete electron orbitals tend to be more reactive –atoms will lose, gain, or share electrons in order to fill completely their outermost electron shell –these actions are the basis of chemical bonding
as electrons move to a lower energy level, closer to the nucleus, energy is released moving electrons to energy levels farther out from the nucleus requires energy
Distribution of Electrons The Octet Rule The shell nearest the nucleus can hold either one electron or two. The second shell can accommodate up to 8 electrons, and will be filled before any electrons appear in the third shell (which also becomes stable when it contains 8 electrons) and so on in subsequent shells.
Distribution of Electrons Element Symbol # of electrons 1 st shell 2 nd 3 rd 4 th Hydrogen H 1 1 - - - Carbon C 6 2 4 - - Nitrogen N 7 2 5 - - Oxygen O 8 2 6 - - Neon Ne 10 2 8 - - Sodium Na 11 2 8 1 - Chlorine Cl 17 2 8 7 - Calcium Ca 20 2 8 8 2
Isotopes Atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. Example: carbon-13 and carbon-14
Ions Ions – atoms that have gained or lost one or more electrons. When sodium loses one electron it becomes Na+ because it has 11 positive protons and 10 negative electrons. When chlorine gains one electron it becomes Cl- because it has 17 positive protons and 18 negative electrons.
Chemical Bonds –the energy holding two atoms together is called a chemical bond –there are 3 principal types of chemical bonds 1. ionic 2. covalent 3. hydrogen
Ionic Bonds Ionic bonds involve the attraction of opposite electrical charges Example: the bond holding sodium and chlorine in sodium chloride (salt)
Covalent Bonds - Form between two atoms when they share electrons –the number of electrons shared varies depending on how many the atom needs to fill its outermost electron shell –covalent bonds are stronger than ionic bonds
Hydrogen Bonds Hydrogen bonds are weak bonds that form due to covalent bonds where one nucleus attracts the shared electrons more than another nucleus Hydrogen bonds form in association with polar molecules –each atom with a partial charge acts like a magnet to bond weakly to another polar atom with an opposite charge
Water molecules stick to each other by hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen Bonds Give Water Unique Properties Water is the cradle of life. Water is essential for life –the chemistry of life is water chemistry Water is a polar molecule –water can form hydrogen bonds –hydrogen bonding confers on water many different special properties
Water is a compound made of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom (H 2 O). Hydrogen bonds cause the attraction of water molecules. Water has a high heat capacity. Water freezes at 0 C. Water boils at 100 C.
Water is a solvent. …… Evaporating water has a cooling effect. Many of the substances that dissolve in water also pollute it. Solid water (ice) is less dense than liquid water. Ice floats on water.
Water molecules are sticky –cohesion – when one water molecule is attracted to another water molecule –adhesion – when polar molecules other than water stick to a water molecule
Acids Acid – any substance that dissociates in water and increases the [H + ] –acidic solutions have pH values below 7 –acid is a H+ donor –Hydrochloric acid HCl is an acid. Why?
Bases Base – any substance that combines with [H + ] when dissolved in water –basic solutions have pH values above 7 –base is a H+ acceptor –Sodium hydroxide NaOH is a base. Why?
The pH Scale pH is an abbreviation for “power of hydrogen” The pH scale ranges from 1 to 14 Water has the neutral value of 7 Below 7 solutions are more and more acidic. Ex. a solution with a pH of 4 is more acidic than a solution with a pH of 5 Above 7 solutions are more and more basic. Example, a solution with a pH of 9 is more basic than a solution with a pH of 8
The pH Scale Each unit on the pH scale represents a 10-fold change in H+ concentration. This means that a solution with a pH of 4 has 10 times the concentration of H+ present in one with a pH of 5, and 100 times present in one with a pH of 6, and so on.
Buffers Buffer is a substance that acts as a reservoir for hydrogen ions, donating them to the solution when their concentration falls and taking them from the solution when the H+ concentration rises. Buffers keep pH of blood constant between 7.35 and 7.45