2Chapter: Invertebrate Animals Table of ContentsChapter: Invertebrate AnimalsSection 1: What is an animal?Section 2: Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and RoundwormsSection 3: Mollusks and Segmented WormsSection 4: Arthropods and Echinoderms
3Animal Characteristics What is an animal?1Animal CharacteristicsWhat makes an animal an animal?Animals are many-celled organisms that are made of different kinds of cells.Most animal cells have a nucleus and organelles. The nucleus and many organelles are surrounded by a membrane. This type of cell is called a eukaryotic (yew ker ee AH tihk) cell.
4Animal Characteristics What is an animal?1Animal CharacteristicsAnimals cannot make their own food.Animals digest their food.Most animals can move from place to place.
5What is an animal?1SymmetrySymmetry refers to the arrangement of the individual parts of an object that can be divided into similarhalves.Animals with body parts arranged in a circle around a central point have radial symmetry.
6What is an animal?1SymmetryAnimals with bilateral symmetry have parts that are nearly mirror images of each other.A line can be drawn down the center of their bodies to divide them into two similar parts.
7Symmetry 1 Some animals have an irregular shape. What is an animal?1SymmetrySome animals have an irregular shape.They are called asymmetrical (AY suh meh trih kul).They have bodies that cannot be divided into similar halves.
8Animal Classification What is an animal?1Animal ClassificationScientists place all animals into smaller, related groups.They can begin by separating animals into two distinct groups—vertebrates and invertebrates.Vertebrates (VUR tuh bruts) are animals that have a backbone.
9Animal Classification What is an animal?1Animal ClassificationInvertebrates (ihn VUR tuh bruts) are animals that do not have a backbone.About 97 percent of all animals are invertebrates.
10Animal Classification What is an animal?1Animal ClassificationScientists classify the invertebrates into smaller groups, as shown.The animals within each group share similar characteristics.
11Question 1 Answer 1 How do animals get food? Section Check1Question 1How do animals get food?AnswerAnimals can not make their own food. They must eat plants or other animals to supply their energy needs.IN: 6.4.3
12Question 2 1 Which has radial symmetry? A. lobster B. sea anemone Section Check1Question 2Which has radial symmetry?A. lobsterB. sea anemoneC. spongeD. none of themIN: 6.4.3
13Section Check1AnswerThe sea anemone has radial symmetry. Symmetry refers to the arrangement of the parts of an animal. Animals with radial symmetry have body parts arranged in a circle around a central point.IN: 6.4.3
14Question 3 1 Which describes most of the cells found in animals? Section Check1Question 3Which describes most of the cells found in animals?A. they have bilateral symmetryB. they have a nucleus and many organellesC. they help animals moveD. they help in reproductionIN: 6.4.3, 6.4.5
15Section Check1AnswerThe correct answer is B. The cells found in animals are called eukaryotic cells. Animals are made of many different kinds of cells.IN: 6.4.3, 6.4.5
16Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms 2SpongesFor a long time scientists didn’t know how to classify sponges.Originally they thought sponges were plants because they don’t move to search for food.
17Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms 2SpongesSponges, however, can’t make their own food as most plants do.Sponges are animals.Adult sponges are sessile (SE sul), meaning they remain attached to one place.
18Filter Feeders 2 Sponge bodies are made of two layers of cells. Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms2Filter FeedersSponge bodies are made of two layers of cells.All sponges are filter feeders.They filter food out of the water that flows through their bodies.
19Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms 2Filter FeedersThe inner surface of the central cavity is lined with collar cells.Thin, whiplike structures, called flagella (flah JEH luh), extend from the collar cells and keep the water moving through the sponge.
20Body Support and Defense Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms2Body Support and DefenseThe soft bodies of many sponges are supported by sharp, glass-like structures called spicules (SPIHK yewlz).Other sponges have a material called spongin.Spongin is similar to foam rubber because it makes sponges soft and elastic.Click image to view movie.
21Sponge Reproduction 2 Sponges can reproduce asexually and sexually. Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms2Sponge ReproductionSponges can reproduce asexually and sexually.Asexual reproduction occurs when a bud on the side of the parent sponge develops into a small sponge.The new sponge breaks off, floats away, and attaches itself to a new surface.New sponges also may grow from pieces of a sponge.
22Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms 2Sponge ReproductionMost sponges that reproduce sexually are hermaphrodites (hur MA fruh dites).This means that one sponge produces both eggs and sperm.
23Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms 2CnidariansCnidarians (nih DAR ee uns), such as jellyfish, sea anemones, hydra, and corals, have tentacles surrounding their mouth.The tentacles shoot out stinging cells called nematocysts (NE ma toh sihsts) to capture prey, similar to casting a fishing line into the water to catch a fish.
24Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms 2CnidariansCnidarians are hollow-bodied animals with two cell layers that are organized into tissues.The inner layer forms a digestive cavity where food is broken down.
25Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms 2CnidariansOxygen moves into the cells from the surrounding water, and carbon dioxide waste moves out of the cells.Nerve cells work together as a nerve net throughout the whole body.
26Body Forms 2 Cnidarians have two different body forms. Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms2Body FormsCnidarians have two different body forms.The vase-shaped body of the sea anemone and the hydra is called a polyp (PAH lup).
27Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms 2Body FormsJellyfish have a free-swimming, bell-shaped body that is called a medusa (mih DEW suh).Jellyfish are not strong swimmers. Instead, they drift with the ocean currents.Some cnidarians go through both a polyp and a medusa stage during their life cycles.
28Cnidarian Reproduction Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms2Cnidarian ReproductionCnidarians reproduce asexually and sexually.Polyp forms of cnidarians, such as hydras, reproduce asexually by budding.
29Cnidarian Reproduction Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms2Cnidarian ReproductionSome polyps also can reproduce sexually by releasing eggs or sperm into the water.The eggs are fertilized by sperm and develop into new polyps.
30Cnidarian Reproduction Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms2Cnidarian ReproductionCnidarians that spend most of their life as a medusa have a sexual (medusa) stage and an asexual (polyp) stage.
31Cnidarian Reproduction Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms2Cnidarian Reproduction
32Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms 2FlatwormsFlatworms are invertebrates with long, flattened bodies and bilateral symmetry.Their soft bodies have three layers of tissue organized into organs and organ systems.
33Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms 2FlatwormsPlanarians are free-living flatworms that have a digestive system with one opening.They don’t depend on one particular organism for food or a place to live.Click image to view movie.
34Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms 2FlatwormsMost flatworms are parasites that live in or on their hosts.A parasite depends on its host for food and shelter.
35Tapeworms 2 One type of parasitic flatworm is the tapeworm. Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms2TapewormsOne type of parasitic flatworm is the tapeworm.To survive, it lives in the intestines of its host, including human hosts.The tapeworm lacks a digestive system so it absorbs nutrients from digested material in the host’s intestine.
36Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms 2TapewormsA tapeworm grows by adding sections directly behind its head.Each body segment has both male and female reproductive organs.
37Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms 2Tapeworms
38Roundworms 2 Roundworms are the most widespread animal on Earth. Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms2RoundwormsRoundworms are the most widespread animal on Earth.Billions can live in an acre of soil.A roundworm’s body is described as a tube within a tube, with a fluid-filled cavity in between the two tubes.
39Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms 2RoundwormsThe cavity separates the digestive tract from the body wall.Roundworms are more complex than flatworms because their digestive tract has two openings.
40Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms 2RoundwormsFood enters through the mouth, is digested in a digestive tract, and wastes exit through the anus.Some roundworms are decomposers, others are predators, and some, like the heartworm, are animal parasites.Other roundworms are plant parasites.
41Question 1 Answer 2 How do cnidarians use nematocysts? Section Check2Question 1How do cnidarians use nematocysts?AnswerNematocysts, or stinging cells, are used to capture prey.IN: 6.4.3
42Question 2 2 This diagram of a sponge shows that sponges _______. Section Check2Question 2This diagram of a sponge shows that sponges _______.IN: 6.4.3
43D. use spicules for production Section Check2A. are hermaphroditesB. produce budsC. reproduce asexuallyD. use spicules for productionIN: 6.4.3
44Section Check2AnswerThe correct answer is A. Most sponges that reproduce sexually are hermaphrodites. Both sperm and eggs are produced from the same sponge.IN: 6.4.3
45Question 3 2 Which of the following describes the body of a roundworm? Section Check2Question 3Which of the following describes the body of a roundworm?A. a medusaB. a polypC. a tube within a tubeD. has two cell layersIN: 6.4.3
46Section Check2AnswerThe correct answer is C. The two tubes are separated by a fluid-filled cavity. The inner tube is the digestive tract.IN: 6.4.3
47Mollusks and Segmented Worms 3MollusksImagine yourself walking along an ocean beach at low tide. On the rocks, you see small snails with conelike shells. In a small tidal pool, one arm of a shy octopus can be seen at the opening of its den.How are these different animals related? What do they have in common?
48Common Characteristics Mollusks and Segmented Worms3Common CharacteristicsMollusks are soft-bodied invertebrates that usually have a shell.They also have a mantle and a large, muscular foot.
49Common Characteristics Mollusks and Segmented Worms3Common CharacteristicsThe mantle is a thin layer of tissue that covers the mollusk’s soft body.If the mollusk has a shell, it is secreted by the mantle.
50Common Characteristics Mollusks and Segmented Worms3Common CharacteristicsBetween the mantle and the soft body is a space called the mantle cavity.Gills are organs in which carbon dioxide from the animal is exchanged for oxygen in the water.Land-dwelling mollusks have lungs in which carbon dioxide from the animal is exchanged for oxygen in the air.
51Body Systems 3 Mollusks have a digestive system with two openings. Mollusks and Segmented Worms3Body SystemsMollusks have a digestive system with two openings.Many mollusks also have a scratchy, tonguelike organ called the radula.The radula (RA juh luh) has rows of fine, teethlike projections that the mollusk uses to scrape off small bits of food.
52Mollusks and Segmented Worms 3Body SystemsSome mollusks have an open circulatory system, which means they do not have vessels to contain their blood.The blood washes over the organs, which are grouped together in a fluid-filled body cavity.
53Types of Mollusks - Gastropods Mollusks and Segmented Worms3Types of Mollusks - GastropodsGastropods are the largest group of mollusks.Most gastropods, such as the snails and conchs, have one shell.Slugs also are gastropods, but they don’t have a shell.Gastropods live in water or on land.All move about on a large, muscular foot.
54Mollusks and Segmented Worms 3BivalvesA bivalve is an organism with two shell halves joined by a hinge.Large, powerful muscles open and close the shell halves.Bivalves are water animals that also are filter feeders. Food is removed from water that is brought into and filtered through the gills.
55Mollusks and Segmented Worms 3CephalopodsThe most complex type of mollusks are cephalopods (SE fah lah pawdz).Most cephalopods have an internal plate instead of a shell.
56Mollusks and Segmented Worms 3CephalopodsThey have a well-developed head and a “foot” that is divided into tentacles with strong suckers.
57Mollusks and Segmented Worms 3CephalopodsThey have a closed circulatory system in which blood is carried through blood vessels instead of surrounding the organs.Cephalopods are adapted for quick movement in the ocean.Water enters the space between the mantle and the other body organs.
58Mollusks and Segmented Worms 3CephalopodsWhen the mantle closes around the collar of the cephalopod, the water is squeezed rapidlythrough a funnel-like structure called a siphon.
59Mollusks and Segmented Worms 3CephalopodsThe rapid expulsion of water from the siphon creates a force that causes the animal to movein the opposite direction of the stream of water.
60Mollusks and Segmented Worms 3Segmented WormsEarthworms, leeches, and marine worms are segmented worms, or annelids (A nul idz).Their body is made of repeating segments or rings that make these worms flexible.Each segment has nerve cells, blood vessels, part of the digestive tract, and the coelom (SEE lum).
61Mollusks and Segmented Worms 3Segmented WormsThe coelom, or internal body cavity, separates the internal organs from the body wall.Annelids have a closed circulatory system and a complete digestive system with two body openings.
62Earthworms 3 Earthworms have more than 100 body segments. Mollusks and Segmented Worms3EarthwormsEarthworms have more than 100 body segments.Each segment has external bristlelike structures called setae (SEE tee).Earthworms use the setae to grip the soil while two sets of muscles move them through the soil.
63Mollusks and Segmented Worms 3EarthwormsEarthworms get the energy they need to live from organic matter found in the soil.From the mouth the soil moves to the crop, where it is stored.Behind the crop is a muscular structure called the gizzard.
64Earthworms 3 Here, the soil and food are ground. Mollusks and Segmented Worms3EarthwormsHere, the soil and food are ground.In the intestine, the food is broken down and absorbed by the blood.Undigested soil and wastes leave the worm through the anus.
65Mollusks and Segmented Worms 3EarthwormsCarbon dioxide passes out and oxygen passes in through its mucous-covered skin.Earthworms and other segmented worms have many organ systems, including circulatory,reproductive, excretory, digestive, and muscular systems.
66Mollusks and Segmented Worms 3LeechesThese segmented worms have flat bodies from 5 mm to 460 mm long with sucking disks on both ends.They use these disks to attach themselves to an animal and remove blood.
67Mollusks and Segmented Worms 3LeechesAlthough leeches prefer a diet of blood, most of them can survive indefinitely on small aquatic animals.
68Mollusks and Segmented Worms 3Marine WormsPolychaetes (PAH lee keets) are the largest and most diverse group of annelids.The word polychaete means “many bristles.”Most marine worms have bristles, or setae, along the sides of their body.
69Mollusks and Segmented Worms 3Marine WormsBecause of these bristles, marine worms are sometimes called bristle worms.Bristles are used for walking, swimming, or digging, depending on the type of marine worm.
70Mollusks and Segmented Worms 3Body TypesSome marine worms are filter feeders. They either burrow into the mud or build their own tube cases and use their featherlike bristles to filter food from the water.Some marine worms move around eating plants or decaying material.Other marine worms are predators or parasites.
71Section Check3Question 1What is the function of the radula that many mollusks have?AnswerThe radula is used to scrape off small bits of food. It is a scratchy, tonguelike organ that has rows of fine, teethlike projections.IN: 6.4.3
72Question 2 3 This diagram shows a squid that is _______. Section Check IN: 6.4.3
73A. filtering food from water B. moving by expelling water Section Check3A. filtering food from waterB. moving by expelling waterC. squirting water at its enemiesD. using water to remove wastesIN: 6.4.3
74Section Check3AnswerThe correct answer is B. Squids can use their mantle to squeeze water and squirt it out of a structure called a siphon. When they do this, the force from the expulsion of water, causes the squid to move in the opposite direction of the stream of water.IN: 6.4.3
75Question 3 3 Most segmented worms have setae. What are setae? Section Check3Question 3Most segmented worms have setae. What are setae?IN: 6.4.3
76Section Check3AnswerSetae are bristlelike structures found on the external surface of each segment of the worm. Earthworms use setae to grip the soil as they move. Marine worms may use setae for walking, swimming, or digging depending on the type of worm.IN: 6.4.3
77Arthropods and Echinoderms 4ArthropodsArthropods (AR thruh pahdz) are the largest and most diverse group of animals.Arthropods are animals that have jointed appendages (uh PEN dih juz).Appendages are structures such as claws, legs, and antennae that grow from the body.
78Arthropods and Echinoderms 4ArthropodsArthropods have a rigid body covering called an exoskeleton.It protects and supports the body and reduces water loss.As the animal grows, the exoskeleton must be shed because it doesn’t grow with the animal.This process is called molting.
79Arthropods and Echinoderms 4ArthropodsArthropods have bilateral symmetry and segmented bodies similar to annelids.In most cases, arthropods have fewer, more specialized segments. Instead of setae, they have appendages.
80Insects 4 Insects make up the largest group of arthropods. Arthropods and Echinoderms4InsectsInsects make up the largest group of arthropods.Insects have three body regions—head, thorax, and abdomen.Sensory organs, including the eyes and antennae, are located on the head.
81Arthropods and Echinoderms 4InsectsThe thorax has three pairs of jointed legs and usually one or two pairs of wings.The abdomen is divided into segments and has neither wings nor legs attached, but reproductive organs are located there.
82Circulatory System 4 Insects have an open circulatory system. Arthropods and Echinoderms4Circulatory SystemInsects have an open circulatory system.Oxygen is not transported by blood in the system, but food and waste materials are.
83Arthropods and Echinoderms 4Circulatory SystemOxygen is brought directly to the insect’s tissues through small branching tubes.These tubes connect to openings called spiracles (SPIHR ih kulz) located along the sides of the thorax and abdomen.
84Arthropods and Echinoderms 4MetamorphosisMany insects completely change their body form as they mature.This change in body form is called metamorphosis (met uh MOR fuh sus).Click box to view movie.
85Arthropods and Echinoderms 4MetamorphosisButterflies, ants, bees, and beetles are examples of insects that undergo complete metamorphosis.Complete metamorphosis has four stages—egg, larva, pupa (PYEW puh), and adult.
86Metamorphosis 4 Some insects undergo incomplete metamorphosis. Arthropods and Echinoderms4MetamorphosisSome insects undergo incomplete metamorphosis.They have only three stages—egg, nymph, and adult.
87Arthropods and Echinoderms 4ArachnidsSpiders, ticks, mites, and scorpions belong to a group of arthropods known as arachnids (uh RAK nudz).Arachnids have only two body regions—a cephalothorax (sef uh luh THOR aks) and an abdomen.
88Arthropods and Echinoderms 4ArachnidsThe cephalothorax is made of the fused head and thorax regions.All arachnids have four pairs of legs attached to the cephalothorax.
89Arachnids 4 Spiders are predators. Arthropods and Echinoderms4ArachnidsSpiders are predators.A spider uses a pair of fanglike appendages near its mouth to inject paralyzing venom into its prey.
90Arthropods and Echinoderms 4ArachnidsThen it releases substances into its prey that digest the victim, turning it into a liquid, and the spider drinks it.Other arachnids, like the scorpion, paralyze their prey with venom from their stinger.
91Centipedes and Millipedes Arthropods and Echinoderms4Centipedes and MillipedesCentipedes and millipedes are long, thin, segmented animals.These arthropods have pairs of jointed legs attached to each segment.Centipedes have one pair of jointed legs per segment, and millipedes have two pairs.
92Centipedes and Millipedes Arthropods and Echinoderms4Centipedes and MillipedesCentipedes are predators that use venom to capture their prey.Millipedes eat plants.
93Arthropods and Echinoderms 4CrustaceansThe group of arthropods called crustaceans includes some of the largest arthropods.However, most crustaceans are small marine animals that make up the majority of zooplankton.Zooplankton refers to the tiny, free-floating animals that are food for other marine animals.
94Crustaceans 4 Their body structures vary greatly. Arthropods and Echinoderms4CrustaceansTheir body structures vary greatly.Crustaceans usually have twopairs of antennae attached to the head, three types of chewing appendages, and five pairs of legs.
95Arthropods and Echinoderms 4CrustaceansMany water-living crustaceans also have appendages called swimmerets on their abdomen.Swimmerets force water over the feathery gills where carbon dioxide from the crustacean is exchanged for oxygen in the water.
96Arthropods and Echinoderms 4EchinodermsSea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers are echinoderms.Echinoderms have spines of various lengths that cover the outside of their bodies.Most echinoderms are supported and protected by an internal skeleton made up of bonelike plates.
97Arthropods and Echinoderms 4EchinodermsEchinoderms have a simple nervous system but don’t have heads or brains.Some echinoderms are predators, some are filter feeders, and others feed on decaying matter.
98Water-Vascular System Arthropods and Echinoderms4Water-Vascular SystemAll echinoderms have a water-vascular system.It is a network of water-filled canals and thousands of tube feet.The tube feet work like suction cups tohelp the sea star move and capture prey.
99Water-Vascular System Arthropods and Echinoderms4Water-Vascular SystemSea stars have a unique way of eating.The sea star pushes its stomach out of its mouth and into the opened shell of its prey.After the prey’s body is digested and absorbed, the sea starpulls in its stomach.Like some invertebrates, sea stars can regenerate lost or damaged parts.
100Question 1 4 How are insects different from other arthropods? Section Check4Question 1How are insects different from other arthropods?A. Most of them have wings.B. They have an exoskeleton.C. They have jointed appendages.D. They have segmented bodies.IN: 6.4.3
101Section Check4AnswerThe correct answer is A. Most insects have one or two pairs of wings that grow from their thorax. The other characteristics listed are shared by all arthropods.IN: 6.4.3
102Section Check4Question 2What type of metamorphosis is being shown in this diagram?IN: 6.4.3
103Section Check4AnswerThis diagram shows how complete metamorphosis occurs in bees. The four stages of this process are egg, larva, pupa, and adult.IN: 6.4.3
104Section Check4Question 3Why do crustaceans that live in the water include some of the largest arthropods with the heaviest exoskeletons?AnswerA large heavy exoskeleton is less limiting in water than on land. Water pushes up against the pull of gravity and helps these animals support their heavy exoskeletons.IN: 6.4.3
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