Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Automatic Sprinkler Systems FET 112 – Fire Protection Systems Objective #2.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Automatic Sprinkler Systems FET 112 – Fire Protection Systems Objective #2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Automatic Sprinkler Systems FET 112 – Fire Protection Systems Objective #2

2 Automatic Sprinkler Systems

3 Automatic Sprinkler System “For fire protection purposes, an integrated system of underground and overhead piping designed in accordance with fire protection engineering standards……usually activated by heat and discharges water over the fire area.”

4 History and Development of Automatic Sprinkler Systems  Early “sprinkler” systems involved the use of steel pipe with drilled holes or perforations provided along the length of pipe  This type of system involved a manually operated water supply  Corrosion, plugged holes, poor distribution of water onto the fire

5 History and Development of Automatic Sprinkler Systems  The concept for the use of a heat- actuated device dates back to approximately 1860, but it was not until 1875 that this concept was incorporated into a device  Henry Parmelee is given credit for the first “automatic” sprinkler  Brass Cap soldered over a perforated distributor designed to screw onto a nipple

6 NFPA 1995 report: U.S. Experience with Sprinklers…  “NFPA has no record of a fire killing more than two people in a completely sprinklered public assembly, educational, institutional, or residential building where the system was properly operating.”

7 Automatic Sprinkler System  Detects a fire  Sounds an alarm  Controls or extinguishes the fire  Enhances life safety  Reduces severity of loss  Minimizes business interruption  Most reliable and effective of all fire protection devices / systems

8 Automatic Sprinkler System Common Misconceptions  Heat from lighting a cigarette can activate the system  When one “goes off”, they all “go off”  Easily activated by accident  Will cause severe water damage  Leaks and drips are common problems  Not cost effective

9 Maintenance35% Occupancy14% Inadequate Water 10% Partial Protection 8% Obstructions 8% 8% Impairments Construction6% Other Causes 11% Automatic Sprinkler System Why Do They Fail? National Fire Protection Association

10 Automatic Sprinkler System CROSSMAIN BULK MAIN (RISER) WATERMOTORALARM FIREDEPT.CONNECTION MAINDRAINCONNECTION WATER SUPPLY ALARM VALVE O.S. & Y. GATE VALVE TO CONTROL WATER SUPPLY TO SYSTEM AUTOMATICSPRINKLERS INSPECTOR’STESTCONNECTION BRANCHLINES

11 Automatic Sprinkler System Design Considerations  Occupancy / storage / hazards  Environment  Building construction  Size / height of building  Special features  Location  Water supply

12 Occupancy Classifications  Light Hazard: Low Combustibility / low quantity of contents  Ordinary Hazard Group 1: Combustibility is low, quantity is moderate, moderate rate of heat release  Examples - parking garages / bakeries / canneries / laundries  Ordinary Hazard Group 2: Combustibility / quantity is moderate to high, heat release moderate to high  Examples - dry cleaners / printing / wholesale -retail sales

13 Occupancy Classifications  Extra Hazard Group 1: Combustibility and quantity very high, probability of rapidly developing fires with high heat release, little or no flammable / combustible liquids  Examples - feed mills / paper - wood - rubber products manufacturer  Extra Hazard Group 2: Same as group 1 with moderate to substantial amounts of flammable / combustible liquids or extensive shielding of combustibles  Examples - woodworking with flammable finishing, flammable liquids spraying, flow coating, mobile or modular housing manufacturers

14 Automatic Sprinkler System Types of Systems  Wet pipe system  Dry pipe system  Deluge system  Preaction system  Antifreeze system (loop)

15 Wet Pipe System  System entirely filled with water  Heat opens system and water begins to flow immediately  Flowing water causes an alarm to sound  Water controls or extinguishes the fire  No action required to restore system except replacing activated sprinklers  Must be non-freezing locations

16 Wet Pipe System RISER SYSTEMPRESSURESUPPLYPRESSURE MAINDRAIN SUPPLY SIDE O.S. & Y. VALVE TO ALARM PILOTVALVECLAPPER(CLOSED) SYSTEMSIDE

17 Wet Pipe System

18 Dry Pipe System  Used in unheated or artificially cooled areas (40º F or less)  System filled with air or nitrogen under pressure  Sprinklers opening releases air or nitrogen causing dry pipe valve to trip (open)  System fills with water and flows out opened sprinklers  Following activation system must be drained and reset

19 Dry Pipe Sprinkler System (Set) AIR PRESSURE FILLER CUP FOR WET SEATSYSTEM MAINDRAIN O.S. & Y. VALVE INTERMEDIATECHAMBER WATERPRESSUREGUAGE TOALARM CLOSED CLAPPER AIR

20 Dry Pipe Sprinkler System (Tripped) AIR PRESSURE GUAGE FILLER CUP FOR WET SEATSYSTEM 2” DRAIN O.S. & Y. VALVE WATERPRESSUREGUAGE TOALARM OPENCLAPPER

21 Dry Pipe Valve Set Tripped

22 Dry Pipe System

23 Required if system capacity exceeds 500 gallons or time for water flow to test connection exceeds 60 seconds. Dry Pipe System Quick Opening Devices  Accelerator: Sprinkler opening causes air pressure to drop. Accelerator activates, sending air pressure under clapper causing dry pipe valve to trip  Exhauster: Sprinkler opening causes exhauster to open, allowing air to escape to atmosphere. Dry pipe valve trips quicker

24 Quick Opening DeviceAIR AIRSEAT WATER WATERSEAT ACCELERATOR RESTRICTEDORIFICE INTERMEDIATE CHAMBER TOALARM AIR WATER VALVE BALL DRIP CLAPPER FLEXIBLEDIAPHRAGM Accelerator

25 Quick Opening Device (Exhauster) RISERSYSTEM AIR RESTRICTED ORIFICE TOATMOSPHERE 40 40

26 Deluge System  Special use system  All sprinklers are open  Valve to system is opened by a heat / smoke detection system  Water flows from all sprinklers upon activation  Requires draining / resetting following activation  Valve must be in heated location

27 Deluge System AUTOMATIC OR MANUAL ACTIVATINGDEVICE OPENSPRINKLER MAINDRAIN SUPPLYPRESSURE ATMOSPHERICPRESSURE TO ALARM

28 Deluge System

29 Preaction System  Developed for properties highly susceptible to water damage  Requires 2 activations for water discharge  Piping is filled with air/ sprinklers closed  A fire detection system opens valve flooding system with water and sounding an alarm  Water does not flow until heat opens a sprinkler  May allow time for manual fire suppression  System requires draining / resetting

30 Preaction System AUTOMATIC OR MANUAL ACTIVATINGDEVICE CLOSEDSPRINKLER MAINDRAIN SUPPLYPRESSURE ATMOSPHERICPRESSURE TO ALARM

31 Preaction System

32 Review of the Three Types of Preaction Systems

33 Non-Interlocked Preaction systems  Designed so the Deluge Valve will open when EITHER the detection system operates OR a loss of pneumatic (air) pressure in the sprinkler system occurs  When the Deluge Valve opens, water will flow into the sprinkler piping and out of any open sprinklers and any other opening on the system.  In the event of non-operation of the release system, the system will operate as a dry system.

34 Single-Interlocked Preaction systems (most common)  Activation of a fire detection system will fill the system piping with water  Used where:  It is desirable to have water available at the sprinkler when the sprinkler operates  The sprinkler piping is subject to:  Damage  Freezing conditions  Accidental water discharge must be minimized

35

36 Double-Interlocked Preaction systems  Activation of BOTH the detection system and operation of an automatic sprinkler are necessary to cause discharge of water in the hazard area  Activation of one only will not cause the valve to open  Detection only – alarm condition  Sprinkler activation – loss of air pressure

37

38 Antifreeze System (Loop)  Used in small unheated area such as a loading dock  Connected to a wet pipe system  Capacity of antifreeze system should not exceed 40 gallons  Must meet local / state health regulations  Solution must meet proper type / mixture

39 Antifreeze System (Loop) – (cont.)  Heat opens the sprinklers releasing antifreeze followed by water from wet pipe system  System requires restoration following the activation  Annual testing of solution required

40 Antifreeze System (Loop) SPRINKLER UNHEATEDAREA DRAIN VALVE CHECK VALVE HEATEDAREA VALVE WETPIPESYSTEM FILLING CUP WATER ANTI-FREEZESOLUTION

41 Residential Sprinkler Systems

42 History – Residential Systems  Automatic Sprinkler Systems have been successfully used to protect various occupancies, including commercial and industrial buildings for over 100 years  However, a residence has historically been the place where most people die  In 1973, a report of the National Commission on Fire Prevention and Control titled, “America Burning” brought to light this fact  80% of fire deaths were in the home

43 Residential Installation  Although increasing, it is estimated that less than 3 percent of the one- and two- family homes in the United States have them installed

44 Residential Sprinkler Systems  Handout of NFPA 13R – Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height  NFPA 13D – Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes

45 Residential Sprinkler Systems (cont.)  NFPA 13R addresses cost-effective sprinkler protection with LIFE SAFETY as its PRIMARY GOAL and PROPERTY PROTECTION as a SECONDARY GOAL  NFPA 13R provides a high, but not an absolute, level of life safety and a somewhat lesser degree of property protection

46 Residential Sprinkler Systems (cont.)  A sprinkler system designed and installed with NFPA 13R is expected to prevent flashover (total involvement) in the room of fire origin, where sprinklered, and to improve the chance for occupants to escape or be evacuated  Criteria was developed by Underwriters Laboratory (UL) and Factory Mutual Research Corporation (FMRC) during actual fire tests

47 Residential Sprinkler Systems (cont.)  The main differences between a commercial sprinkler system (NFPA 13) and a residential sprinkler system is the sprinkler heads and the incoming service arrangement sprinkler heads the incoming service arrangement  Response Time vs. Conductivity of the head Response Time vs. Conductivity of the head

48

49 Residential Sprinkler Heads  Classified as Fast Response Sprinkler Heads  Also, the spray from the residential sprinkler heads must wet the walls of the fire test chamber within their area of coverage to at least 18 inches from the ceiling

50

51

52 Water Spray Systems

53  The term water spray refers to water that is discharged from specially designed nozzles or devices to produce a predeterminedspecially designed nozzles or devices  Pattern  Particle size  Velocity  Density  The use of these designations cannot be taken as an indication of any specific discharge pattern or spray characteristics of the nozzlespray characteristics of the nozzle

54 Water Spray Systems (cont.)  Water Spray Systems are also called Water Fog Systems  These systems are typically designed to protect a specific piece of equipment with surface coverage  In addition, water spray systems are usually of the deluge type of system

55

56 Water Spray Nozzles  Spray nozzles are not equipped with fusible operating elements  Discharge from water spray nozzles differ from standard sprinklers in the following ways:  Pattern from spray nozzles may be elliptical  Water spray is forcefully directed onto the object or surface being protected  The nozzle spray must overcome wind and draft conditions  The required design density

57

58

59 Advantages of Wet Systems  System simplicity  Relative low installation and maintenance expense  Ease of modification  Short down time following a fire

60 Disadvantages of Wet Systems  This type of system is not suited for subfreezing environments  Not practical where piping is potentially subject to severe impact damage

61 Advantages of Dry Systems  Their ability to provide automatic sprinkler protection in spaces where freezing is possible  Example locations may include: unheated warehouses and attics, outside exposed loading docks, and within commercial freezers

62 Disadvantages of Dry Systems  Increased complexity  Higher installation and maintenance costsmaintenance  Lower design flexibility  Increased response time  Increased corrosion potential  With the exception of unheated buildings, dry pipe systems are generally not recommended

63

64 Advantages of Deluge Systems  Faster response to fire occurrence  Usually more effective in controlling or extinguishing a fire condition  Single action is required for water release  Used where large amounts of water is of minimal concern

65 Disadvantages of Deluge Systems  Requires fire detectors for the actuation of the system  Potential water collection in the area of system operation

66 Advantages of Preaction Systems  Dual action is required for water release  Used in water sensitive environments  Example locations may include: archival vaults, fine art and storage rooms, rare book libraries and computer centers

67 Disadvantages of Preaction Systems  Higher installation and maintenance costs  Modification difficulties  Potential decreased reliability

68 Standpipes / Hose Supply

69 System Components  Listed - FM / UL / ULC / other recognized testing organizations  Properly designed  Properly installed  Adequately supported / braced  Protected from cold / vandalism / other damage  Regularly tested  Maintained

70 Automatic Sprinkler

71 Automatic Sprinklers Sprinkler Storage Cabinet

72 Valves Identification Signs

73 Fire Department Connection DRY PIPE VALVE RISER MAINDRAIN CONTROLVALVE AUTOMATIC BALL DRIP FIRE DEPT. HOSECONNECTION CHECKVALVE

74 Fire Department Connection ALARMCHECKVALVE RISER MAINDRAIN CONTROLVALVE CHECKVALVE AUTOMATIC BALL DRIP FIRE DEPT. HOSECONNECTION

75 Fire Department Connection (FDC)

76 Problem?

77 Supervision  Waterflow  Water level / temperature (tank)  Water pressure  Air pressure (dry pipe system / pressure tank  Valve tamper  Fire pump status  Valve room temperature  Other

78 Water Overflow (Standby)SYSTEMPRESSURE SUPPLYPRESSURE PRESSURE SWITCH LOCALELECTRICALARM WATER MOTOR GONG PILOTVALVE RETARDCHAMBER CLAPPERCLOSED

79 Water Overflow, OperatingSYSTEMPRESSURESUPPLYPRESSURE PRESSURE SWITCH LOCALELECTRICALARM WATER MOTOR GONG RETARDCHAMBER CLAPPEROPEN

80 Water Motor Gong

81 Waterflow

82 Valve Tamper

83 Big Problems!

84 Questions one must ask? Sprinkler System  Is the water supply adequate?  Was the system properly installed, flushed and tested?  Is the system and all components protected from cold, vandalism, or other damage?  Does the owner thoroughly understand the system and know how it works?  Is the system being properly tested and maintained?

85 Questions one must ask? Components  Are the sprinklers of the proper type, temperature classification, and obstructed?  Are all sprinkler control valves accessible / open / locked / supervised?  Is the sprinkler piping being used to support shelving / racks / storage / etc.?  Is the fire department connection visible / accessible / in working order?  Are the alarms tested / working / monitored?

86 Questions one must ask? Occupancy  Is the sprinkler system designed for the present occupancy?  Is the entire occupancy sprinklered?  Is there unanticipated high piled stack / rack storage / aerosols / flammable liquids / other hazards?  Is the building protected from exposure fires?  Are the vertical / horizontal / openings protected?  Are there unsprinklered combustible spaces?

87 Final Thoughts Simply installing a sprinkler system will not guarantee adequate fire protection. The system must be properly designed, installed, tested, and maintained to be effective.

88 QUESTIONS???

89


Download ppt "Automatic Sprinkler Systems FET 112 – Fire Protection Systems Objective #2."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google