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CONVERSIONS AND CALCULATIONS USED BY PHARMACY TECHNICIANS Pharmacy Tech Practicum.

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Presentation on theme: "CONVERSIONS AND CALCULATIONS USED BY PHARMACY TECHNICIANS Pharmacy Tech Practicum."— Presentation transcript:

1 CONVERSIONS AND CALCULATIONS USED BY PHARMACY TECHNICIANS Pharmacy Tech Practicum

2 Vocabulary  Alligation  Apothecary System  Diluent  Dilution  Household System  International Time  Metric System  Solvent  Volume  Drip Rates  Suspension  Piggyback  Compounding  Solution

3 Math for Pharmacists/Technicians?  Wide variety of math skills needed to work in Health Care  Pharmacy Technicians may use math for a variety of reasons  Working the cash register  Compounding (mixing) drugs  Calculating Drip Rates  Calculating Dosage amounts

4 Roman Numerals  Numeric System of Ancient Rome  May be used by physicians when ordering medications  Not commonly used for larger numbers in Pharmacy

5 Roman Numerals  There are four basic principles for reading and writing Roman numerals:  1. A letter repeats its value that many times (XXX = 30, CC = 200, etc.). A letter can only be repeated three times.  2. If one or more letters are placed after another letter of greater value, add that amount. VI = 6 (5 + 1 = 6)LXX = 70 ( = 70)MCC = 1200 ( = 1200)

6 Roman Numerals  3. If a letter is placed before another letter of greater value, subtract that amount. IV = 4 (5 – 1 = 4)XC = 90 (100 – 10 = 90)CM = 900 (1000 – 100 = 900)  4. A bar placed on top of a letter or string of letters increases the numeral's value by 1,000 times.XV = 15, = 15,000  Complete Exercise 4-1 pg

7 International/Military Time  Military time used exclusively in Hospitals  Orders are written 24 hours per day  Health care workers must understand exactly when order was written and when treatment should take place  Military time decreases confusion

8 Military Time Conversion Chart Exercise 4-2 pg 111

9 Practice Quiz #1  Pg 112

10 Fractions to decimals and %  Fractions  Proper- 5/12  Improper- 7/3  Mixed Number 3 ½ Fraction to decimal- Divide Numerator (top number) by the denominator (bottom number) 5/12= 5 divided by 12 Mixed Numbers must be changed to a fraction first Denominator x Whole Number + Numerator 3 ½ = 2 x 3 + 1= 7/2 then 7 divided by 2

11 Fractions to decimals to %  Decimals to Percent .73 x 100 = 73% or  Move the decimal over two spaces top the right Percent to decimal  73% / 100 or =.73 or  Move the decimal two spaces to the left

12 Ratios to %  1 : 2 = ½  Divide the numerator by the denominator x 100  ½=.5.5 x 100= 50%

13 Ratios  Ratio- A relationship between two parts of a whole or between one part and a whole.  Can be written as ½ or 1:2  Used for compounding in the pharmacy  Example 1- one gram of drug in a 1000 ml solution would read as 1:1000  Example grams of a drug in 100ml of solution would read as 25:100 which can be reduced to ¼

14 Proportions  A proportion is a relationship between two ratios  May be written as 1/2 = 2/4 or 1:2 :: 2:4  Proportion problems may be solved by either cross multiplying and dividing or by “means and extremes”

15 Proportions  Example # 1  The pharmacy receives an order for erythromycin suspension 125 mg to be taken TID for 10 D  How many ml do you need to fill this order? You have 200mg/5ml You need 125 mg to be taken TID for 10 days Set up equation Have=Need 200mg/5ml=125mg/x 5 x125 = 625/200=3.125ml per dose 3 x ml per day 10 (days) x = ml

16 Proportions  Example #2  You receive an order for Decadron 3mg BID for 30D  How many TAB do you need to fill this order?  Have=Need  1.5mg TAB =3 mg/x TAB  1 TAB x 3mg = 3/1.5 = 2 TAB  2 Tab/dose x 2 doses per day = 4 tablets per day  4x30=120 Tab total

17 Proportions  Quick Check 4-6 page 117

18 Proportions  Example #3  Prepare 240 mg of gentramicin IVPB (intraveneous Piggyback) using the pharmacy stock concentration of 40 mg/ml bid  Need to determine how many ml of the stock solution are needed to fill the 240 mg order  240mg/1 ml = 40 mg/x ml  Divide both sides by 40  6ml=x  Answer you will need 12 ml of solution to equal 240 mg of drug for dose given twice daily

19 Word Problems  Read through pg 119  Example 4-8

20 Proportions  Exercise 4-7 quick check pg 120  Practice quiz pg 121

21 Metric System  International System of Units  Used to measure weight, distance and volume.  Table 4-3 metric prefixes  Exercise 4-8 quick check pg 122

22 Household Measurements  System of measure used in the US  Cups, tablespoons and teaspoons are common measurements  Examples 4-10, 4-11, 4-12 on page 123  Exercise 4-9 quick check pg 123

23 Apothecary System  Traditional system of pharmacy, originated in Europe  Not common in pharmacies today  Dry weight measurements- grain (gr), scruple, dram, ounce and pound.  Volume- fluid ounce, dram and minim.  Example 4-13 and 4-14  Exercise 4-10 Quick Check  Exercise 4-11 Quick Check

24 Avoirdupois System  Originated in Europe  Common system of commerce  Items purchased and sold by the ounce and pound  Dry weights- pounds, ounces and grains  Liquid volume- Fluid ounces (fl oz), pints (pt) and gallons (gal)  Exercise 4-12 quick check

25 Quiz  Practice quiz #3 pg 127

26 Oral Syringes and Injections

27 Pediatric Dosing

28 Geriatric Dosing

29 Calculating Drip Rates

30 Dilution

31 Alligation


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