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DRUG CALCULATIONS MAKING IT EASY

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**CLASS OUTLINE 1) review roman numerals**

2) review apothecary measurements 3) review conversions 4) review 3 steps to dosage calculations 5) practice, practice, practice

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Plugging in to Memory Roman Numerals

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APOTHECARY MEASURES What are we talking about?

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CONVERSIONS - WITHIN SYSTEMS - BETWEEN DIFFERENT SYSTEMS

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**WITHIN SYSTEMS MEMORIZE: 1 gram (g or G) = 1000 milligrams (mg)**

1 liter (l or L) = 1000 milliliters (ml or mL) 3 teaspoons (t) = 1 tablespoon (T) 1 cubic centimeter (cc) = 1 milliliter (ml)

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**BETWEEN SYSTEMS MEMORIZE: 1 gram (G, GM, gm) = 15 grains (gr)**

60 milligrams (mg) = 1 grain (gr) 1 tablespoon (T) = 15 ml 1 kilogram (kg) = 2.2 pounds (lb) 1 ounce (oz) = 30 ml or 30 cc 1 cc = 15 drops (gtt) or 15 minims (mx) 1 inch (in) = 2.5 centimeters (cm)

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STEPS TO CONVERSION

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WITHIN SYSTEMS 1) Write down what you know in a ratio or fraction format: Example: 1 Gram 1000 milligrams

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**2) Write down what you desire in a ratio or fraction format to complete the proportion:**

Example: 3 Grams x milligrams

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Remember: The numerator and denominator must be the same unit of measurement The unknown value is referred to as “x”

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**The completed proportion:**

1 Gram Grams 1000 mg : : x milligrams Cross multiply

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1 GM x X mg(s) = 3 GM x 1000 mg Drop the terms used for units of measurement: 1 X = 3(1000) Solve for X: divide both sides of the equation by the number preceding X: X = 3000 X = 3000

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**BETWEEN SYSTEMS 1) Write down what you know in a fraction format:**

15 grains 1 gram

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**2) Complete the proportion by writing down what you desire:**

15 grains grains 1 gram : : X grams HINT: Keep the units of measurements in the correct spaces!

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**Drop the units of measurement**

Cross multiply 15 x X = 30 x 1 15X = 30 Solve for X: Divide each side by the number in front of X : X = ANS: 2 Grams

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VOILA!!

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**3 STEPS TO DOSAGE CALCULATION:**

1) Convert to units of same system and similar unit 2) STOP AND THINK 3) Desired over amount on hand times quantity EX: desired amount on hand x quantity

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**SAMPLE PROBLEMS 1) Convert: 300 mg to grams**

2) Convert: 120 mg to grains 3) Convert: 30 gr to grams 4) A child who weighs 55 pounds weighs ____ kilograms?

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**5) A patient is restricted to four 8-ounce glasses of water per day**

5) A patient is restricted to four 8-ounce glasses of water per day. The nurse knows that the patient’s fluid intake is restricted to ____ mls per day. 6) The nurse administered aspirin gr v. She knew this was equivalent to _____milligrams(s).

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**7) Potassium chloride tablets are available in 300 mg doses**

7) Potassium chloride tablets are available in 300 mg doses. The physician prescribed gr v. Give ____ tablet(s). 8) The physician prescribed Capoten, 1.5 grams daily in three equal doses, for hypertension. The nurse would give _____ 1000 mg tablet(s) three times a day.

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**9) Lasix 30 mg, IM, is prescribed as a diuretic**

9) Lasix 30 mg, IM, is prescribed as a diuretic. Lasix was available as 40 mg/mL. The nurse would give ______mL. 10) Scopolamine 0.3 mg was ordered subcutaneously as a preanesthetic medication. The medication was available in ampules containing grains 1/200 per mL. The nurse would give _____mL.

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**11) The physician prescribed 25 mg of Librium, IM**

11) The physician prescribed 25 mg of Librium, IM. Add 2 mL of diluent to yield 100 mg/2ML. The nurse should give _____ mL. 12) The physician prescribed 5 mg of Garamycin for a child. The medication is available as 20 mgs/mL. To give 5 mg, you would give ____ mL.

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**PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE**

And HOLLER if you need help!

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